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He is known for the Smith- Minkowski-Siegel mass formula and Smith normal form. He made important contributions to abstract algebra, particularly ring theory, algebraic number theory, and the definition of real numbers. He is known for the Dedikind cut, a method of construction of real numbers. Logician who introduced the Venn diagram, used in set theory, logic, statics, and computer science.

He was the first to prove the consistency of non-Euclidean geometry by modeling it on a surface of constant curvature, the pseudosphere, and the interior of an n-dimensional unit sphere, the so-called Beltrami-Klein model. He also developed singular decomposition for matrices, and used differential calculus for problems of mathematical physics indirectly influencing the development of tensor calculus developed by Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro and Tullio Levi-Civita.

He is known for his foundational work in group theory, Jordan curve theorem, Jordan matrix, and more. Made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and math. Together with James clerk maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann, he created statistical mechanics explaining the laws of thermodynamics as consequence of the statistical properties of ensembles of a physical system composed of many particles.

He invented modern vector calculus independently of Oliver Heaviside. He studied the Fibonacci sequence, and the Lucas sequence and Lucas numbers are named after him. Also, a proof using elliptic functions was found which as relevance to the boson string theory in 26 dimensions. He largely created the theory of continuous symmetry and applied it to the study of geometry and differential equations. He invented set theory, which became a fundamental theory in mathematics,. He showed that there are an infinity of infinities. He defined cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic.

He is known chiefly for his connection with the theory of functions, today known as complex analysis. He is best known for his contributions to the theory of elliptical functions, differential equations, and group theory. He is known for his determinants identities, known as Frobenius-Stickelberger formulae, governing elliptic functions, and for developing the theory of biquadratic forms.

He was the first to introduce the notion of rational approximations of functions, known as Made approximates, and to give a full proof of the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. He is also known for Frobenius manifolds, which are differential-geometric objects. Made noteworthy contributions to analysis, partial differential equations, and mechanics.

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She is known for the Cauchy-Kowalevski theorem. He is known for the Heaviside-step function, among other achievements. He is noted for his proof of pi being a transcendental number a number which is not a root of any polynomial with rational coefficients. A polymath and described the last universalist in mathematics. He is known for Painieve transcendentals, Picard group, and Picard theorem, which states that an analytic function with an essential singularity takes every value infinitely often, and perhaps one exception, in any neighborhood of the singularity.

He is credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics. He wrote over books and papers, and was a founder of mathematical logic and set theory, to which he contributed much notation. He also made key contributions to the modern rigorous and systematic treatment of the method of mathematical induction. He made contributions to the theory of functions of a real variable and to Fourier series.

For example, Ascoli introduced. He is recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians if the 19th and 20th centuries. He discovered and developed ideas in many areas, including invariant theory and the axiomatization of geometry, one of the foundations of functional analysis. He is known as one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic. He put forth his famous 23 problems in to hopefully be solved in the 20th century.

He is considered a major figure in mathematics, and responsible for the development of modern logic. Known for his work in group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the connection of geometry and group theory. He classified geometries by their underlying symmetry groups.

He is known for a Klein bottle. It is a one sided surface which, if traveled upon, could be followed back to the post of origin while flipping the traveler upside down. He invented tensor calculus, an extension of vector calculus to tensor fields tensors that may vary over a manifold I. Vito Volterra 3 May — 11 October was an Italian mathematician and physicist, known for his contributions to mathematical biology and integral equations,[2][3] being one of the founders of functional analysis. He is known for the lotka-volterra equations. Worked on integral equations and operator theory which foreshadowed hillier spaces.

He made contributions in number theory, complex function theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equations. He proved the prime number theorem, and is known for the Hadamard product and Hadamard matrices. He is one of the founders of modern topology and contributed significantly to set theory, descriptive set theory, measure theory, function theory, and functional analysis. He is known for the Hausdorff Dimension, the Hausdorff space, the Hausdorff paradox, and other achievements. He made significant contributions to mathematical physics, differential geometry, and group theory.

He is known for Lie groups and differential forms. BOREL- january 7, february 3, He is known for founding work in the areas of measure theory and probability. Ernst Steinitz 13 June — 29 September was a German mathematician. He axiomatically studies the properties of fields and defines important concepts like prime field, perfect field and the transcendence degree of a field extension.

Steinitz proved that every field has an algebraic closure. He also made fundamental contributions to the theory of polyhedra: A logician, his work had major implications in the foundation of mathematics, and he is best known for developing the Zermelo-Fraenkel axiomatic set theory, and his proof of there well-ordering theorem. Issai Schur January 10, — January 10, was a Jewish mathematician who worked in Germany for most of his life. As a student of Frobenius, he worked on group representations the subject with which he is most closely associated , but also in combinatorics and number theory and even theoretical physics.

He is best know for proving the Takagi existence theorem in class field theory. He worked on the Blanomange curve, a graph that is nowhere differentiable but a uniformly continuous function. He is most famous for his theory of integration, which is summing the area between an axis and the curve of a function defined for that axis. HARDY- february 7, december 1, He is known for his achievements in number theory and analysis, and for the hardy-weinberg principle, hardy-ramanujan asymptotic formula, and the hardy-littlewood circle method.

He is the mathematician who discovered ramanujan. He worked in number theory and complex analysis. He is known for his work in the distribution of prime numbers and the Landau prime ideal theorem. He made major contributions to the topology of point sets and introduced the entire concept of metric spaces. He also made several important contributions to the field of statistics and probability, as well as calculus. His dissertation opened the entire field of functionals on metric spaces and introduced the notion of compactness.

Independently of Riesz, he discovered the representation theorem in the space of Lebesgue square integrable functions. He is known for research in harmonic analysis, in particular, Fourier series. A geometer and topologist, he applied these to atomic physics and the theory of relativity. He proved the Jordan curve theorem in He worked in topology, set theory, measure theory, and complex analysis. He is known for the Brouwer fixed-point theory and the hairy ball theorem. He is known for outstanding contributions to set theory, research on the axiom of choice and the continuum hypothesis, number theory, the theory of functions, and topology.

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She is known for her landmark contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. One of the leading mathematicians, she developed the theories of rings, fields, and algebras, and explained the connection between, symmetry and conservation laws. He is best known for what is now known as the ergodic theorem.

He did fundamental work on algebraic topology and its applications to algebraic geometry, and on the theory of non-linear ordinary differential equations. He is known for the Lefschetz hyperplane theorem, the Lefschetz number. The Lefschetz fixed point theorem, among other acheivements. He is best known for achievements in analysis, number theory, and differential equations. He attempted to solve the Riemann hypothesis by showing that if it were true then the prime number theorem follows and obtains the zero term.

He is known for the 1st and 2nd hardy- littlewood theorems, the 1st is a strong form of the twin prime conjecture. He is known for well algebra, well transform, the well lemma a very weak form of the Laplace transform , the well tensor, and other discoveries. German mathemetician known for bieberbach conjecture.

He made fundamental contributions to combinatorics, number theory, numerical analysis, and probability theory. He is known for the poly conjecture, the ploy enumeration theorem, the Hilbert- polya theorem, among other accomplishments. With almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made substantial contributions to analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions, including solving problems considered unsolvable. He is known for the Courant number and the Courant minimax principle. He published in the finite element method, which is his numerical treatment of the plain torsion problem for multiply- connected domains, and is now one of the ways to solve partial differential equations numerically.

March 30, August 31, He is known for the Banach-Tarski paradox, the Banach-Steinhaus theorem, and for functional analysis, which he founded. He developed Tauberian theorems which deals with infinite series in summability theory, most of which could be encapsulated in a principle from harmonic. He is also known for abstract Wiener space, a mathematical object in measure theory, and real-valued continuous paths on the unit interval known as classical Wiener space. One of the leading mathematicians in the 20th century known for his work on algebraic number theory, contributing largely to class field theory and a new construction of L-functions.

One of the most influential algebraic geometers of the 20th century. He is known for Zariski theory on holomorphic functions. Considered one of the greatest analysts of the 20th century. January 14, October 26, A prolific author who did work in model theory, metamathematics, algebraic logic, abstract algebra, topology, geometry, measure theory, mathematical logic, and set theory.

Roger Cave

Bartel Leendert van der Waerden February 2, — January 12, was a Dutch mathematician and historian of mathematics. Van der Waerden is mainly remembered for his work on abstract algebra. He also wrote on algebraic geometry, topology, number theory, geometry, combinatorics, analysis, probability and statistics, and quantum mechanics he and Heisenberg had been colleagues at Leipzig. In his later years, he turned to the history of mathematics and science.

He is known for Ramsey theory, a branch of mathematics that studies the conditions under which order must appear. He had a phenomenal memory. He made major contributions to functional analysis, topology, numerical analysis, quantum mechanics, quantum statistical analysis, game theory, computing, linear programming, self-replicating machines, and statistics. He is known for a great numbers of achievements.

He is known for work in probability theory, topology, intuitional logic, turbulence studies, classical mechanics, mathematical analysis, Kolmogorov complexity, KAM theorem, and then KPP equation. Made major contributions to mathematical logic and to the foundation of theoretical computer science. He is best known for the lambda calculus and the church-rosser theorem. He was specifically a geometer. He discovered far reaching topological relations between algebraic geometry and differential geometry, and an area now called hodge theory, and pertaining more generally to Mahler manifolds.

He made substantial contributions to algebraic topology. Considered the greatest logician in history along with Aristotle, Tarski, and Frege. He published 2 incompleteness theorems in in mathematical logic, which he proved, that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.

She wrote more than research papers in algebraic number theory, integral matrices, and matrices in algebra and analysis. He invented the Monte Carlo method of computation, suggested nuclear pulse space propulsion, proved some theorems, and proposed several conjectures. Worked primarily in number theory. He provided a formalization of the concept of the algorithm and computation with a turning machine, the model of a general purpose computer.

He is also considered the father on theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence. He is known for the Turning proof and the Turing test. One of the most prolific mathematicians ever, he is known for his social approach to mathematics and he collaborated with over mathematicians in proving and conjecturing. September 30, January 30, Co-founded category theory with Saunders Mac Lane. He is also known for the Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms. One of the first african-american women to earn a Ph. Her work in general focused on linear and matrix algebra.

An American mathematics popularizer and regarded as the dean of mathematical puzzles. Known for his development of the simplex method, and algorithm for solving linear problems. He pioneered the theory of distributions, which gives a well-defined meaning to objects such as the Dirac delta function. Cryptographer known as the father of information theory. He demonstrated that electrical applications of Boolean algebra could construct any logical, numerical relationship. He is also known for the Shannon number, Shannon expansion, power inequality, binary code, and much more.

He is widely known for the development of non-standard analysis, a mathematically rigorous system whereby infinitesimal and infinite numbers were reincorporated into modern mathematics. A mathematical logician who popularized mathematical logic problems. ZADEH- february 4, Made contributions in combinatorics, graph theory, number theory, and mostly probability theory.

Made a reputation as a topologist and was involved in singularity theory. Founder of catastrophe theory. Second african-American woman to earn a Ph. Proved the atiyah-singer index theorem, which paved the way for new interactions between pure math and theoretical physics. One of the outstanding analysts of the 20th century. His contributions include the gagliardo-nirenberg interpolation inequality, which is important in the solution of the elliptical partial differential equations, that arise in many areas of math, and the formalization of the bounded mean oscillation known as john-nirenberg space, which is used to study the behavior of both elastic materials and games of chance as martingales.

He gave a cohomological treatment of global class field theory using techniques of group cohomology applied to the dale class group and Galois cohomology. This treatment made more transparent some of the algebraic structures in the previous approaches in class field theory which used central field algebras to compute the Brauer group of a global field. He made contributions to algebraic topology, algebraic geometry, and algebraic number theory.

Together with cartoon, serve established the technique of using eilenberg-maclane spaces for computing homotopy groups of seres, at that time a major problem in topology. Known as a leader in the field of harmonic analysis. In the theory of dynamical systems, he has worked in complex dynamics. Leading figure in the creation of algebraic geometry. He is considered by many to be the greatest mathematician in the 20th century.

He won the Nobel prize in economics for his producing mathematics of the highest quality. They bear the same relation to general hodge structures as modular curves do to elliptic curves. He researches toplogy, dynamical systems, and mathematical economics. Known for his work on diophantine approximation, the large sieve, discrepancy theory, and irregularities of distribution.

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He is best known for the proofs that the continuum hypothesis and the axiom of choice are independent from zermelo-fraenkel set theory. Contributed to the modern metric theory of dynamical systems and connected the world of deterministic dynamical systems with the world of probabilistic stochastic systems. WALL- december 14, He developed the chern-simons form, and contributed to the development of string theory by providing a theoretical framework to combine geometry and topology with quantum field theory.

This required the development of the idea of cohomology operations in the general setting, since the basis of spectral sequence is the initial data of ext functors taken with respect to a ring of such operations, generalizing the steered algebra. Known for his work on effective methods in number theory, in particular those arising from transcendental number. Known for his fundamental contributions to probability theory and in particular for creating a unified theory of large deviations.

Pioneering work in chaos theory and discoverer of the Feigenbaum constants. Known for work on lattices in lie groups, and the introduction to methods from ergodic theory into diophantine approximations. Known for the baum-connes conjecture, noncompetitive geometry, and operator algebras. He has researched elasticity, the calculus of variations, and infinite- dimensional dynamical systems. Calai-yau manifolds are part of the standard toolkit for string theorists today. He contributed innovations that revised the study of multidimensional complex analysis by finding fruitful generalizations of classical low-dimensional results.

His work on partial differential equations, fourier analysis, in particular convergence, multipliers, divergence, singular integrals and hardy spaces earned him the fields medal in He has studied mathematical physics, harmonic analysis, fluid dynamics, neural networks, geometry, and spectral analysis.

Works mainly in spectral graph theory, extremal graph theory, and random graphs, in particular in generalizing the erdos-renyi model for graphs with general distribution including power-law graphs in the study of large information networks. Currently working on quantum field theory. He resolved the conway-norton monstrous moonshine conjecture, which describes an intricate relation between the monster group and modular. To prove this conjecture, he drew on theories of vertex algebras and borcherds-kac-moody algebras along with string theory, and applied them to the moonshine module, a vertex operator algebra with monster symmetry.

He also produced the theory of borcherds product, which are holomorphic automorphic forms on O n,2 that have well- behaved infinite product expansions at cusps. In topological field theory, he introduced the moduli space of stable maps, a rigorous formulation of the feynman integral for topological string theory.

Worked on developing homotopy theory for algebraic varieties and formulated motivic cohomology. He is also known for the invariant foundations of mathematics and homotopy type theory. Made landmark contributions to Riemann geometry and geometric topology. He proved the poincare conjecture in , one of the millennial prizes, but refused to accept the 1 million dollar award for solving the problem.

He proved the ganglands conjectures for the automorphism group of a function field. Works on random walks, brownian motion, schramm-loewner evolution, and related theories in probability theory and mathematical physics. He is the leader of and the main contributor to one of the major parts of modern number theory, anabelian geometry. He initiated and developed absolute anabelian geometry, mono-anabelian geometry, and combinatorial anabelian geometry. He introduced p-adic teichmuller theory and hodge- arakelov theory. He is author of the inter- universal theichmuller theory also referred to as the arithmetic deformation theory or mochizuki theory.

It supplies a new conceptual view on numbers, by using groups of symmetries such as the full absolute Galois groups and arithmetic fundamental groups. Its applications provide solutions to problems such as the spire conjecture, the hyperbolic Volta conjecture, and. Works on representation theory of infinite symmetric groups and its applications to algebraic geometry, mathematical physics, probability theory and special functions, the statistics of plane partitions, and quantum cohomology of the hilbert scheme of points in the complex plane.

He formulated well-known conjectures relating the gromov-witten invariants and donaldson-thomas invariants of threefold. His research includes complex analysis, dynamical systems, and probability theory. This allowed the use of geometric representation theory, the theory of perverse sheaves, to study what was initially a combinatorial problem in a number- theoretic nature. Works primarily on partial differential equations, Riemann geometry, and mathematical physics. Research topics included teichmuller theory, hyperbolic geometry, ergodic theory, and symplectic geometry.

Works primarily on dynamical systems and special theory. Mexican theoretical physicist known for the Alcubierre drive, a speculative warp drive for a spacecraft that can travel faster then the speed of light.

One of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the 20th century. One of the founders of the science of spectroscopy. One of the first to predict the rotation of the earth, and he placed the sun at the center of the universe. Known for the invention of the transistor and for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known the bfs theory. Known for his applications of math to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics.

Made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory. Instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. One of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. Described as the father of thermodynamics. His work led to the 2nd law of thermodynamics and the the law of entropy.


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One of the founders of the science of thermodynamics. He restated the Carnot cycle as a theory of heat, and he stated the 2nd law of thermodynamics. He split the atom, which was instrumental in the development of atomic power.


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She conducted pioneering work in radioactivity, and discovered the elements polonium and radium. Tsung-Dao Lee November 24, is a Chinese-American physicist, known for his work on parity violation, the Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion RHIC physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars. Lee, at the age of 30, won the Nobel Prize in Physics with Franklin C N Yang for their work on the violation of the parity law in weak interactions, which Chien- Shiung Wu experimentally verified.

Profile of Roger Cave

Made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. He discovered the principle of the doppler effect, which says that the observed frequency of a wave depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer. Physicist known for his work in quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics. Pioneered the development of radio communication. Made major contributions to the field of statistical mechanics and its relation to quantum mechanics, including his theory of phase transition and the Ehrenfest theorem.

Developed the theories of general and special relativity, the law of photoelectric effect, brownian movement, and the mass-energy equivalence formula: Remembered for his work on gravitation and surface tension, and the invention of the torsion pendulum. Laid the foundation for the era of precision thermometry by inventing the mercury-in-glass thermometer. Creator of the 1st nuclear reactor. Known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, and particle physics where he proposed the Parton model.

He discovered and studied the dark absorption lines in the spectrum of the sun that are now known as Fraunhofer lines. He is the inventor of the Fresnel sense, and he formulated the fresnel equation which is the basis for many applications in computer graphics. He is known for kinematics and dynamics in the physics of falling bodies. Proposed a nuclear shell model of the atomic nucleus. Worked on mirror symmetry, relating 2 different calai-yau manifolds concretely, relating the conifold to one of its orbifolds.

Turkish mathematician physicist who worked on the chiral model and on su 6. Pioneer in the field of radioactivity. Discovered the hall effect, the production of a voltage difference hall voltage across an electric conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and the applied magnetic field perpendicular to the current. Known for his theories on the conservation of energy, work in electrodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, and on the mechanical foundation of thermodynamics.

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Discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance. This Higgs mechanism, predicts the existence of a new particle, the Higgs boson. Made significant contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Jordon algebra is used to study the mathematical and conceptual foundations of quantum theory. He studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work. Known for his work on cp- violation. He discovered the origin of the broken symmetry which predicted the existence of at least 3 families of quarks in nature.

Known for his work on parity violation, the lee model, particle physics, and relativistic heavy ion physics. He in vented the first working laser, the ruby laser. Discovered the nuclear fission of uranium when it absorbed an extra neutron. Known for his work on the measurement of the speed of light. In , he discovered the classification of hadrons through the su 3 flavor symmetry, now called the eightfold way. She researches elementary particles, fundamental forces and extra dimensions of space, the standard model, supersymmetry, possible solutions to the hierarchy problem.

He discovered argon, Rayleigh scattering, which can explain why the sky is blue, and he predicted the existence of the surface waves known as Rayleigh waves. Best known for his work on the theory of quantum electrodynamics, in particular for developing a relativistically invariant perturbation theory, and for renormalizing red to one loop order. Made a seminal contribution to fluid dynamics including the navies-stokes equations.

Did pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons, which was of essential importance in the development of the quark model in particle physics. Primarily associated with the van Der Waals equation of states that describe the behavior of gases and their condensation to the liquid phase. Contributed to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles. Co-inventor of the 1st electromagnetic telegraph. He works on statistical mechanics and particle physics.

He proposed a theory of mesons in , which explains the interaction between protons and neutrons. Physicists research and study physical phenomena in our universe. Their findings help to explain why the material universe exists and behaves the way that it does. Physicists cover issues ranging from subatomic particles to quantum mechanics, and many others. Svante Arrhenius- february 19, october 2, One of the founders of physical chemistry.

Amedeo Avogadro- august 9, july 9, Avogado constant is named for him which is the number of atoms, molecules, ions, or other particles in 1 mole the amount of chemicals as there are in 12 grams of carbon of a substance, 6. Leo baekeland-november 14, february 23, Adolf von Baeyer- october 31, august 20, Johann Konrad Beilstein- february 17, october 18, Founder of the famous handbook of organic chemistry, now known as the beilstein database.

Friedrich Joachim Becher- may 6, october Marcellin berthelot- october 25, march 18, Known for the thomsen-berthelot principle of thermochemistry hypothesis that argues that all chemical changes are. Bertozzi- october 10, Jons jakob berzellus- august 20, august 7, One of the founders of modern chemistry, along with Robert Boyle, john dalton, and Antoine Lavoisier. Wallace Carothers- April 27, april 29, Henry Cavendish-october 10, february 24, Ernst cohen-known for his work on the allotropy metals that exist on 2 or more different forms of metals.

Gerry cori- august 15, october 26, Archibald scott couper- march 31, march 11, Humphry davy- december 17, may 29, Jean baptiste dumas- july 14, april 10, Henry eyring- february 20, december 26, Michael faraday-september 22, august 25, Hermann von Fehling- june 9, july 1, Franz Joseph Emil Fischer- march 19, december 1, Discoverer of the fischer-tropsch process a collection of chemical reactions that convert mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons and developing the Fischer assay.

Edward frankland- january 18, august 9, Rosalind Franklin- july 25, april 16, Charles freidel- march 12, april 20, Developed the dreidel-crafts alkylation and acylation reaction. Joseph louis gay-Lussac- december 6, may 9, Charles Frederic Gerhardt- august 21, august 19, He came up with the notation for the chemical formulas for acetylsalicylic acid. Josiah willard Gibbs- february 11, april 28, He converted a large part of physical chemistry from an empirical into a deductive science.

Moses gomberg- february 8, february 12, Carl grabe- february 24, january 19, Known for the first synthesis of an economically important dye, alizarin. Thomas graham- december 20, september 16, Pioneered work in dialysis and the diffusion of gases. Fritz haber- december 9, january 29, Charles martin hall- december 6, december 27, Dorothy Hodgkin-may 12, july 29, She developed protein x-ray calistography. To determine the 3-dimensional structures of biomolecules, she discovered the strucure of penicillin, insulin, and vitamin b August Wilhelm hofmann- april 8, may 5, His research on aniline helped lay the basis of the aniline-dye industry and laid the groundwork for others to extract benzene and toluene and convert them into nitro compounds and amines.

Darlene hofmann-november 8, Nuclear chemist who confirmed the existence of element , seaborgium. Frederick lowland hopkins- june 20, may 16, Discovered vitamins and the amino acid tryptophan. Linda hsieh-wilson- she combines organic chemistry and neurobiology to understand the molecular basis of fundamental processes. Amir hoveyda- he studies asymmetric catalysis, and is particularly noted for his work on developing catalysts for asymmetric olefin metathesis. Vladimir ipatieff- november 21, november 29, Principle founder of the theory of chemical structure.

Izaak kolthoff- february 11, march 4, Analytical chemist who was highly influential. Considered the father of analytical chemistry. Hans kreb-august 25, november 22, Biochemist who pioneered study of cellular respiration, the biochemical pathway in cells for production of energy. Irving Langmuir- january 31, august 16, He also invented the gas filled incandescent lamp.

August laurent- november 14, april 15, Founded organic chemistry with the discoveries of anthracene, ophthalmic acid, and carbolic acid. Antoine lavoisier- august 23, may 8, Widely considered the father of modern chemistry. He understood the role oxygen plays in combustion, opposed the phlogiston theory, recognized the names oxygen and hydrogen, helped construct the metric system, compiled the first list of the elements, helped reform chemical nomenclature, predicted the existence of silicon, and was the first to establish that sulfur was and element and not a compound.

Willard libby- december 17, september 8, Jean charles galissard de marginar- april 24, april 15, His work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei. Known for the scientific technique of fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, which is way to determine the mass-to- charge ratio of ions based on cyclotron frequency of the ions in a fixed magnetic field. Julius lothar meyer- august 19, april 11, Stanley miller- march 7, may 20, Eilhardt mitscherlich- january 7, august 26, Best remembered for his discovery of isomorphism crystallography in Karl Friedrick mohr-november 4, september 28, Henry Gwen Jeffrey Moseley-november 23, august 10, Paul muller- january 12, october 13, Discovered insecticidal qualities and the use of ddt in the control of vector diseases such as malaria and yellow fever.

Co-discoverer of photosynthetic protein plantacyanin and pioneer in the field of free radicals. John Alexander reina newland- november 26, july 29, Worked on the development of the periodic table of the elements. Julius nieuwland- february 14, june 11, Joan oro- october 26, september 2, His research was important in understanding the origin of life. Rudolph Pariser- december 8, Robert parr- september 22, march 27, Developed a method of computing approximate molecular orbitals for pi electron systems.

Joseph priestley- One of the founding fathers of chemistry. Ilya Prigogine- january 25, may 28, Known for his discovery that importation of energy into chemical systems could reverse the maximization of entropy rule imposed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Joseph louis proust- september 26, july 5, Discovered the law of constant composition, stating that chemical compounds always combine in constant proportions. Francois marie Raoul- may 10, april 1, Pierre jean robiquet- january 13, april 29, Identified amino acids, the first of them asparagine, and adopted industrial dyes with the identification of alizarin.

Ernest Rutherford- august 30, october 19, Frederick Sanger-august 13, november 19, Carl Scheele-december 9, may 21, Discover oxygen, and identified molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, and chlorine. Christian friederich Schonbein- 18 October — 29 August was a German- Swiss chemist who is best known for inventing the fuel cell [1] at the same time as William Robert Grove, Robert Cumming and his discoveries.

Nevil vincent sidgwick- may 8, march 15, Theoretical chemist who made significant contributions to valency and chemical bonding. Oktay Sinanoglu-february 25, april 19, Internationally renowned turkish physical chemist and molecular biochemist. Using simple pictures, chemists could predict the ways in which complex chemical reactions would proceed, and solve complex problems in quantum chemistry.

Susan soloman-january 19, Alfred stock- july 16, august 12, Friedrich august kekule von stradonitz-september 7, july 13, Louis Jacques thenard- may 4, june 21, Harold Clayton Urey- april 29, january 5, Did pioneering work in isotopes. Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta-february 18, march 5, Developed the field of electrochemistry. Friedich wohler-july 31, september 23, William hyde wollaston- august 6, december 22, Discovered the elements palladium and rhodium. He also developed a way to process platinum ore into malleable ingots. Robert woodward- april 10, july 8, Ahmed zewall- february 26, august 6, James Hutton — is considered by many to be the father of modern geology.

He was the first to develop the idea of uniformitarianism, which was popularized by Charles Lyell years later. He also dismantled the universally accepted view that the Earth was just a few thousand years old. Lyell wrote Principles of Geology , his first and most famous book.

This stood in contrast to the then-popular theory of catastrophism. Alfred Wegener , a German meteorologist and geophysicist, is best remembered as the originator of the theory of continental drift. Initially, the theory was widely criticized before being verified by the discovery of mid-ocean ridges in the s. It helped spawn the theory of plate tectonics. Inge Lehmann , discovered the core of the Earth and was a leading authority on the upper mantle. Her idea was later verified in with advances in seismography. Georges Cuvier , regarded as the father of paleontology, was a prominent French naturalist and zoologist.

Cuvier was a believer in catastrophism and a vocal opponent of the theory of evolution. Louis Agassiz was a Swiss-American biologist and geologist that made monumental discoveries in the fields of natural history. He is considered by many to be the father of glaciology for being the first to propose the concept of ice ages. American geologist and first female hired by the USGS; expert in petrography and mineralogy who focused on the crystalline rocks of the United States Piedmont. American geologist and oceanographic cartographer who discovered mid-ocean ridges.

John Tuzo Wilson Canadian geologist and geophysicist that proposed the theory of hotspots and discovered transform boundaries. German geologist and mineralogist that developed the qualitative Mohs scale of mineral hardness in Charles Francis Richter American seismologist and physicist that developed the Richter. Eugene Merle Shoemaker American geologist and founder of astrogeology; co-discovered Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with his wife Carolyn Shoemaker astronomer David Levy.

John Couch Adams June 5, January 21, One of the developers of spectroscopy. The first known person who placed the sun at the center of the known universe with the earth revolving around it, and was also the first to predict the rotation of the earth on its axis. Halton Arp- March 21, December 28, He is known for his atlas of peculiar galaxies which catalogues many examples of interacting and merging galaxies.

He was a critic of the Big Bang theory and advocated a non- standard cosmology incorporating intrinsic redshift. He is known for explaining the lunar eclipse and solar eclipse, the rotation of the earth on its axis, reflection of light by the moon, and he measured the circumference of the earth to He did the calculations to detect the gravitational waves from merging neutron stars and black holes using the LIGO laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory. Measured the length of time for the earth to go around the sun, and he was accurate by a difference of just 3.

Walter Baade- March 24, June 25, He discovered Hidalgo, the first of a class of minor planets Centaurs which cross the orbits of the giant planets. He made the distinction between population 1 and population2 stars, he discovered 2 types of cepheid variable stars which he used to recalculate the size of the universe and doubled the size Hubble came up with in He identified supernovas as a new category of astronomical objects and proposed a new class of stars that result from supernovas. He discovered an optical counterpart of.

Jocelyn Bell- born July 15, Astrophysicist who discovered the first radio pulsar in July Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel — July 22, March 17, He was the first to determine the distance to another star using the parallax method. Johann Ebert Bode- January 19, November 23,! Astronomer who predicted the orbit of Uranus and reformulated and popularized the Titius- Bode law, which predicts pretty well the orbital distances of the planets. Bart Bok- April 28, August 5, Discoverer of Bok globules, small densely dark clouds of interstellar gas and dust, and it is suggested that it is here where stars contract before forming.

Thomas Bopp- October 15, january 5, Tycho Brahe- December 14, October 24, He made comprehensive and accurate observations as an astronomer, especially of the planets. Johannes around the sun, but incorrectly the sun going around the earth. Explained that the moon was closer to us than the sun, developed methods for calculating the position of heavenly bodies over time, and calculating lunar and solar eclipses. Michael Brown-June 5, Discovered many trans-Neptunian objects, notably the dwarf planet Elis.

Geoffrey Burbridge- September 24, January 26, Described the process of stars burning lighter elements into successively heavier atoms which are then expelled Ito form other structures in the universe, including other stars and planets. He also proposed the quasi- steady state theory where the universe is oscillatory and expands and contracts periodically over infinite time. Margaret Burbridge- August 12, She hypothesized with husband Geoffrey, William Fowler, and Fred Hoyle that all elements are made in stars by nuclear reactions stellar nucleosynthesis. Also she was the first person to measure the rotation curves of galaxies and one of the pioneers in the study of quasars.

Robert Burnham Jr-June 16, March 20, Annie Jump Cannon- December 11, April 13, She developed a stellar classification system according to the temperatures and spectral types of the stars. Giovanni Cassini- June 8, September 14, He discovered 4 moons of the planet Saturn, and he noted the division in the rings of Saturn, called the Cassini Division.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar- October 19, August 21, Nicolaus Copernicus- February 19, May 23, Formulated a model of the universe where the sun, rather than the earth, was the center of the universe. Christian Doppler- November 29, March 17, Best known for an influential principle called the Doppler effect, where if a stellar body is moving away from earth, there is a red shift in the spectrum of the object, and if moving towards us, there is a blue shift.

This principle has been used to support the Big Bang theory. Frank Drake- May 28, He is one of the pioneers in the search for extraterrestrial life, including founding SETI, with the first observational attempts to detect extraterrestrial communications in in Project Ozma. He also is the creator of the Drake equation, which estimates the probable likelihood. Ron Drever- October 26, March 7, He was instrumental in the first detection of gravitational waves in September Arthur Eddington- — December 28, November 22, Albert Einstein- March 14, April 18, He applied general relativity to model the large scale structure of the universe.

He is known for the cosmological constant, which was added to the general theory of relativity to hold back gravity to achieve a static universe, which was the accepted view at the time. George Ellis- August 11, Johann Encke- September 23, August 26, German astronomer who worked on calculations of the periods of comets and asteroids, measured the distance from the Earth to the sun, and made observations on the planet Saturn.

Sandra Faber- December 28, She made important discoveries linking the brightness of galaxies to the speed of the stars in them. John Flamsteed- August 19, December 31, He catalogued over 3, stars. He accurately calculated the solar eclipses of and He also is responsible for several of the earliest recorded sightings of the planet Uranus which he mistook for a star and catalogued as the star 34 Tauri. In , he proposed that the 2 great comets were the same comet, first traveling towards the sun and later away from it.

Joseph von Fraunhofer- March 6, June 7, Alexander Friedmann- June 18, September 16, He is best known for his pioneering theory that the universe was expanding, governed by a set of equations he developed now known as the Friedmann equations. Jay GaBany- September 17, Astrophotographer and produced long exposures images of ancient galactic merger remnants around nearby galaxies which were previously undetected or suspected. Galileo Galilei- February 15, January 8, He used the newly invented telescope to confirm the phases Venus goes through, discover the 4 major moons of the planet Jupiter, and observed and analyzed sunspots.

He championed the Copernican heliocentric view of the universe which said that the earth moves around the sun. Johann Gottfried Galle-June 9, July 10, He was the first person to view the Planet Neptune and know what he was looking at. Urban Le Verrier had predicted its existence and position and sent its coordinates to Galle, and Galle found it the same night within 1 degree of the predicted position.

This was a remarkable event was one of the most remarkable events in 19th-century science and a dramatic validation of celestial mechanics. George Gamow- March 4, August 19, He also made an estimate of the residual cosmic microwave background radiation, predicting that the afterglow of the Big Bang would have cooled after billions of years, filling thee universe with a radiation about 5 degrees above absolute zero.

Carl Friedrich Gauss- April 30, February 23, Calculated the orbit of the asteroid Ceres in Margaret Geller- December 8, Did pioneering work in mapping the nearby universe, studies of the relationship between galaxies and their environment, and the development and application of methods for measuring the distribution of matter in the universe. Thomas Gold- May 22,June 22, He was one of the 3 scientists to propose the now abandoned steady star theory hypothesis of the universe. Brian Greene- February 9, Working on string cosmology, especially the imprints of trans Planckian physics on the cosmic microwave background, and brane-gas cosmologies that could explain why space around us has 3 large dimensions, expanding on the suggestion of a black hole electron, that the electron may be a black hole.

Jesse Greenstein- October 15, October 21, He did important work in determining the abundances of the elements in stars, and was among the first to recognize that quasars are compact, very distant sources as bright as galaxies. Allen Guth- February 27, He did pioneering work in cosmic inflation in the just born universe when it passed through a phase of expansion driven by positive vacuum energy density negative vacuum pressure.

June 29, February 21, Solar astronomer best known for discovery of magnetic fields in sunspots. Asaph Hall- October 15, November 22, Discovered the 2 moons of Mars, Deimos and Phobos in He determined the orbits of other planet satellites and of double stars, the rotation of Saturn, and the mass of Mars. Showing 1 - 16 of all Results Books: Read this and over 1 million books with Kindle Unlimited. Borrow for free from your Kindle device. Sicilian Defence Alec Fincham 2 22 Nov Accelerated Dragon Alec Fincham 14 16 Aug Torre Attack Alec Fincham 12 20 Jun Red Queen Alec Fincham 13 7 Jan Snake Variation Alec Fincham 10 22 Nov Queen's Knight Alec Fincham 9 22 Nov Deep Blue Alec Fincham 7 22 Nov Medusa Defence Alec Fincham 6 22 Nov Zugzwang Alec Fincham 4 22 Nov White King Alec Fincham 3 22 Nov Monticelli Trap Alec Fincham 11 22 Nov Previous Page 1 2 Next Page.

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