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Cumbia - Wikipedia
They preferred the natural freedom of their kind, danced under the open sky to the sound of thunderous African drum, played hitting the patch with the hands, men and women, formed a big wheel and danced in couples, but loose, without shaking hands, circling around the drummers; women, with flowers in their head, lustrous hair dint of sebum, and soaked in orange blossom water, accompanied her beau on the circle, swaying in very erect cadence, while the man, pirouetting, or prancing, and showing his skills, all the time, tried to ingratiate his zambita, his partner It was gallantry in the dancer to give his partner two or three tallow candles, and a scarf to grab them In the Indian gaitas, unlike the currulao of blacks, men and women held hand together in the circle, having the gaita players in the center, and couples faced, and were released, and they returned to hold hand hitting the ground with their feet, swaying in cadence and in silence without jumps or without the African singing, being noticed he difference of the two races even in the dancing These dances are preserved today with some variations.
Before, these dances were just used at parties of Hail Mary, and the patron saint of each town, just in that town; in the carnival and some other remarkable parties. Now there is in the coastal provinces, city suburb or town, or village, or township were the party has not started at seven of Saturday and last until the dawn of Monday It was another of those musical forms born from collective work, like the one of the oarsmen that in the navigation activity was the root of cumbia or the r of the 'socoladores' people who cleared a zone of trees , called 'zafra' in some places, and that died after exhausting the sources, Mompox and its area of influence, as part of the Magdalena Grande should also be included within the territory where the vallenato was born, with disputable cradles as Plato, Valledupar, Riohacha, El Paso and the Zona Bananera.
This first instrumental transition is difficult to pinpoint in time, but still clearly perceived in the late nineteenth century, when sones, puyas and drums were heard on the banks of the rivers crossed flutes and whistles with the generic name cumbia. In , the cumbia was nominated by the magazine Semana and the Ministry of Culture as a cultural symbol of Colombia, being in the position twelve of fifty candidates. Since , the mayor of Guamal , Magdalena municipality located in the territory of the former nation of Pocabuy , Alex Ricardo Rangel Arismendi, promotes the project to declare the cumbia as Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Nation Colombiana.
Traditional cumbia is preserved and considered representative of the Colombian identity, especially on the northern Caribbean coast.
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Modern forms of cumbia are also combined with other genres like vallenato , electronica or rock. It is the only city in Colombia where ballroom numbers of Cumbia, Porro and Gaita an orchestrated variant of Porro Pelayero , or Palitiao are still widely enjoyed and danced to by all ages of all social classes. The most fruitful of Colombian music industry is given time in the s, it began with the founding of Discos Fuentes in , the Discos Sonolux in and soon after Discos Victoria. Since the s, orchestras like Lucho Bermudez , Los Corraleros de Majagual , Los Hispanos or Los Graduados took the cumbia to Peru , where it became more known with groups such as Los Mirlos , Los Destellos , Juaneco y Su Combo or Cuarteto Continental who were the first to give a proper rhythm to the Peruvian cumbia using as the main instrument electric guitars.
This led local musicians to give rise to variants of cumbia as a result of its fusionr with rhythms of each nation such as Argentine cumbia , Mexican cumbia , Salvadoran cumbia , etc.
In the early s, Bovea y sus vallenatos move to Argentina and popularizes cumbia in the country; the same was done by the Cuarteto Imperial , a Colombian band nationalized Argentine. The country has contributed musical compositions and own variations Cumbia villera , which resonates particularly with the poor and marginalized dwellers of villas miseria , shanty towns, and slums ; lyrics typically glorify theft and drug abuse. Undoubtedly the most refined version of Argentine cumbia is called Santa Fe cumbia or cumbia with guitar.
In this style the main instrument is the guitar and its compositions are more complex. In the Santa Fe cumbia schemes of two or three simple chords and lyrics about dancing are abandoned, and melancholy lyrics and atypical chords are explored. Its creator, Juan Carlos Denis , is considered a hero of the local music. Pablo Lezcano, ex-member of Amar Azul and founder of Flor Piedra and Damas Gratis is known to be the creator of the cumbia villera "sound".
However, a lighter form of cumbia enjoyed widespread popularity in Argentina during the s. Antonio Rios ex-Grupo Sombras, ex-Malagata is a good representative of the Argentinian cumbia from the s. The emergence of cumbia as a massively popular form of music in Argentina came perhaps with the release of Tarjetita de Invitacion by Adrian y Los Dados Negros in which was certified platinum, a first back then for a cumbia act. The cumbia sound from Bolivia usually incorporates Afro-Bolivian Saya beats and tecnocumbia. In the south and southeast of Mexico states of Chiapas and Oaxaca is traditional the use of the modern marimba Percussion instrument made of native wood from Guatemala as this instrument was developed in the region, extending its use to much of Central America , particularly in Guatemala , El Salvador , Honduras and Nicaragua.
Since the early s, several Central American composers created music pieces using the rhythm of cumbia giving an original touch. Among the main drivers of the cumbia are Nicaraguans Victor M. In Chile, cumbia was also introduced by recordings made in Colombia. Cumbia is one of the most popular dance forms in Chile. They have a style of their own, Chilean cumbia , and some of the most successful orchestras of this genre include Sonora Palacios , Viking 5 , Giolito y su Combo , and La Sonora de Tommy Rey.
However, Cumbia's popularity has been declining since the success of reggaeton in the early s, losing part of the preferences of the popular sectors of society. However, it has regained popularity in late s. These new bands offer some of the classic tones and sounds of Chilean cumbia blended with rock or other folk Latin American styles. The other substyle of the Chilean cumbia is called "sound", and it is the most popular cumbia style in the northern part of the country.
Orchestras such as Orchestra San Vicente , Los Hermanos Flores and Grupo Bravo perform cumbia with basic instrumentation, replacing accordion with brass instruments and woodwinds, and using traditional percussion and bass guitar.
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There he made a record called La Cumbia Cienaguera , which is considered to be the first cumbia recorded outside of Colombia, He also recorded other hits like Mi gallo tuerto , Caprichito , and Nochebuena. He made contact in Mexico City with one of the most important conductors, Rafael de Paz. They recorded in the song "Micaela", and then other hits like "Mi gallo tuerto", "Caprichito", "Nochebuena".
Thanks to its success, Colombian cumbia and porro begin to become popular in Mexico combined with local sounds, with Tony Camargo to create the beginnings of the future Mexican cumbia , subsequently their material reaches the south of the continent Argentina , Chile and Peru. Contributions in compositions and styles in the genre of international repercussion that highlit are the Technocumbia , tropical Cumbia, Cumbia grupera , Mexican Andean Cumbia, and Cumbia sonidera making the electrical elements protagonists synthesizers and electric batteries.
In the s Mike Laure included rock and roll elements into the Cumbia, to create a new style. Moreover, in the 70s a Mexican singer called Rigo Tovar became very popular with his fusion of Cumbia with ballad. Nicaragua became a stronghold of Cumbia music during the s and s. The country has its own variation of cumbia music and dance.
Peru, like other American countries, was invaded by the sounds of the first recordings made in Colombia from the north and from the capital. Since the early 60s', the Cumbia Peruana has had great exponents. While initially had strong influences from Colombian cumbia, over time it has achieved a unique and distinctive style with shades or rhythms influenced by rock, Huayno, native dances of the jungle, waltz, bolero, merengue, salsa, etc.
The rhythm was understood soon in all regions of the country, prompting some groups to introduce some Peruvian musical elements, making electric guitars protagonists.
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Contributions from Peru to the cumbia are interpretation, compositions and variations like Tropical andean cumbia ; thanks to the contribution of Peruvian cumbia, this genre is known throughout South America. Tejano Music Awards categories.