It published material of highly variable quality, first as a monthly but later as a quarterly. Lorraine Ellis Harr, based in Portland, Ore. Harr wielded a strong editorial hand, but many poets who cut their teeth on Dragonfly thank her for her superb guidance in the subtleties of the haiku genre. Messages from Matsuyama , and, especially later in its run, translations from Japanese by editor Richard Tice.
Tice and Jack Lyon became the editors in , publishing irregularly from Magna, Utah, until Early in the first issue appeared of Cicada , a new Canadian haiku magazine edited and published by Eric Amann. The final issue appeared in , but the periodical was reborn in Japan: New Cicada made its debut in , edited and published by Tadao Okazaki and with Amann and Lilli Tanzer as consulting editors.
Two notable journals began in the early s on the East Coast. In the journal was passed to Francine Porad in Washington state. Porad continued to publish high quality haiku and black-and-white artwork until Forrester in Connecticut, which was launched in Among the several journals that were established as membership publications, a few later assumed national importance.
Woodnotes , the quarterly newsletter inaugurated by Vincent Tripi and Paul O.
Williams at the time of the creation of the Haiku Poets of Northern California in , evolved into a full-fledged journal, especially when Michael Dylan Welch replaced Williams as co-editor in and took over full editorial responsibilities in Woodnotes and HPNC soon parted ways, but the journal continued publishing independently through autumn Claire Gallagher and Ebba Story and later by Story alone.
Four periodicals of primarily regional interest sprang up in the early s, and two are still in existence. Seaoats was a twice-yearly publication of the Haiku Poets of South Florida, begun and edited by Robert Henry Poulin, that was active in the mids. Northwest Literary Forum was launched by Ce Rosenow in Oregon in and lasted for seven or eight years. South by Southeast was begun by Kenneth C. It was taken over by the Richmond Haiku Workshop in Self-help and teaching have always been important to the haiku movement. In the Haiku Appreciation Club was organized by Edna Purviance to share ideas and help, especially with beginners.
A newsletter provided a forum and publication outlet, being superseded in a couple of years by the magazine Portals. A Monthly Newsletter of Haiku and Senryu, in the spring of Acorn is an amazing success story, immediately catapulting into the top rank of haiku journals. In editor A. Missias recognized a need for a straightforward, soundly produced haiku-only journal and proceeded to fill that need very well.
Three supplements to Acorn containing theoretical work on seasons in haiku , tanka , and linked forms have also been published. By the same token, a few journals have been [self-]consciously experimental in one way or another. Clarence Matsuo-Allard, in Manchester, N. Begun in and lasting until , Point Judith Light , edited by Patrick Frank, welcomed social-themed haiku.
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Raw NerVZ Haiku , published since in Quebec by Dorothy Howard, is the enfant terrible of the haiku publishing world, with a no-holds-barred editorial policy regarding form and content, absence of censorship some would say editorial discretion , and junkyard layouts and graphics. Another journal on the cutting edge is ant ant ant ant ant , which earlier was the epitome of a boutique publication when each copy was handmade by editor Chris Gordon. Recent issues have presented a dozen or more haiku each from a limited number of poets.
A few publications have been concerned with the relationship of the haiku to mainstream poetry, especially the short poem. Phyllis Walsh inaugurated Hummingbird , a handsomely produced chapbook-sized journal dedicated to short poems, including haiku, in A second number appeared in June , but publication apparently stopped with that issue. Seer Ox , edited and published by Michael McClintock from to in Los Angeles, brought out the wry humor, occasional vulgarity, and sometime parody of senryu with a refreshingly light touch.
To date this has been the only journal exclusively devoted to senryu, that kissing cousin of haiku. Mirrors , published from spring by Jane Reichhold in Gualala, Calif. This was taken over by Terri Lee Grell T. Kelly in , expanded to include other materials, and renamed Lynx. It was passed on to Jane and Werner Reichhold in mid They added tanka, subtracted haiku and fiction, and put up a Web version beginning in , then discontinued the ink-and-paper version a few years later.
Chameleon was originally conceived by Zane Parks as an annual print magazine devoted to renga that was to launch in , but by early only the Web site seemed to be active. Journeys , the first periodical devoted exclusively to haibun, appeared in An indication that American haiku had come of age and was beginning to develop its own canon came with the publication of the first comprehensive haiku anthology in The introduction by van den Heuvel limning something of the early history of Western haiku, the biographical sketches, and materials from the Haiku Society of America toward a definition of haiku added immeasurably to the worth of the book.
Publication of the anthology was also the first recognition of original, Western haiku by a major commercial publisher. The second edition contained nearly haiku and senryu by 66 poets and included valuable examples of linked forms and haibun as well as biographical and bibliographical notes. The third edition of The Haiku Anthology appeared in , published this time by W. Norton, initially in a clothbound edition. The contents had grown to include about haiku and senryu by 89 poets. The introductory essays to the first two editions were included, as was a new foreword.
In its three editions spanning twenty-five years, The Haiku Anthology cemented its position as the Blue Book of American haiku. A second important anthology appeared in An Anthology of North American Haiku. Ross included an essay on Northern American haiku as an introduction to the haiku by poets. The result has been a pleasing series of volumes of very good haiku, senryu, haibun, linked forms, and essays that very nearly represents a chronicle of the year in haiku. Red Moon Press has also published anthologies of haibun and haiga and three volumes in a series called A New Resonance: Emerging Voices in English-Language Haiku.
A number of American regional anthologies have been published, typically the project of a local haiku group. Local haiku groups such as the Haiku Poets of Northern California, the Northwest Region of the Haiku Society of America, and the Boston Haiku Society also publish periodic anthologies that showcase the recent work of their members. Surprisingly, only a handful of topical haiku anthologies have been compiled. In this vein, Alexis Rotella brought together a sampling of butterfly haiku in , Rod Willmot in Canada put together an erotic anthology in and Hiroaki Sato compiled a bilingual Japanese-English anthology of erotic haiku in , and Leroy Kanterman honored the scarecrow in Still, they proved quite popular with the general public.
In the early s, the brevity and bite of these translations were a welcome contrast to the wordy and often sentimental translations that abounded at the time. Noted Midwestern poet and Zen poetry specialist Lucien Stryk produced books of translations of haiku and other Japanese verse beginning in Haiku of Issa , and Cage of Fireflies: Modern Japanese Haiku The book contains prose works and haibun by the three Japanese masters, as well as essays and explanations by Hass.
In William J. How to Write, Share, and Teach Haiku , compiled with the aid of Penny Harter, made accessible for the first time in English a concise, eminently readable compendium of haiku history, modern developments, and information on both writing and teaching haiku and related forms. Now twenty years old, it is still essential reading for the American haiku poet. In Haiku World Higginson presented hundreds of season words kigo and, using more than 1, haiku as examples, demonstrated how these concepts are employed by poets around the globe For the first time English-speaking haiku poets had adequate tools for studying the Japanese kigo system and could debate the adequacy of these conventions for non-Japanese haiku.
Four other instructional books appeared in rapid succession in the first years of the new century: Drawing on Zen to show the cultural background of Japanese haiku, Amann illumined more clearly here than anywhere else in the published literature the very essence of haiku, that indispensable center without which there is no haiku.
He drew on both classical Japanese and 20th-century Western haiku to contrast haiku with the tradition of Western poetry. Carter included haiku and senryu as well as other genres in his anthology, Traditional Japanese Poetry , which won applause for the fidelity of its translations. Ueda weighed in with his The Path of Flowering Thorn: The Life and Poetry of Yosa Buson in No book-length study of Kobayashi Issa existed in English until , when suddenly we were graced with two.
Ueda completed his tour of the three main pillars of Japanese classical haiku with Dew on the Grass: The Art of Priest Issa. Haiku by the Upasaka Shiki , contains so many distractions in the form of asterisks and Japanese words imbedded in the haiku that the pleasure of reading the poetry is compromised. About modern and contemporary Japanese haikuists overall, however, there has been a dearth of biographical and analytical works in English, although a recently in the West a number of book-length collections of works by these poets have appeared.
Bibliographic work on haiku in English has been scarce, and almost nothing has been done in the past fifteen years. An Annotated Bibliography , published in , offered much, especially for the very early years of Western haiku and material on Japanese haiku. The establishment of the American Haiku Archive at the California State Library in Sacramento provided for the first time a focal point and central repository for the American haiku movement.
The inauguration of the archive was celebrated in ceremonies on July 12, It is dedicated to the collection, preservation, and promotion of all haiku and related poetry as a vital component of literature in the English language. A prominent American haiku poet has been selected each year as honorary curator. Early students of Japanese haiku, notably Blyth and Henderson, fretted over whether haiku could be transplanted in foreign soil.
Early practitioners such as Yasuda and Hackett ably demonstrated that it could be done. Along the way the haiku was enormously influential to other writers. The spiritual depth of haiku continues to challenge scholars even while the simplicity and directness of these short verses made the genre immediately popular among a broad segment of the American public.
This popular aspect has, in turn, led to a flowering of English-language haiku worldwide, the subject of a future installment of this long essay. Entire blocks of text are unchanged, and a large percentage of the first two sections is her work. Elizabeth reviewed an early version of this manuscript and made suggestions for its improvement. She declined to be named as a coauthor, but I am very much in her debt for allowing her materials to be altered and reused in this way.
To this great lady of American haiku, who died in February , this work is humbly dedicated. A CD version of this recording was available in Watts also discussed haiku as related to Zen in his book, The Way of Zen. The San Francisco Haiku Anthology , 5. Cor van den Heuvel makes the same point in The Haiku Anthology , , xxix, note 5. Contemporary American Poetry in Traditional Forms. Writing in Oral Tradition Bly was certainly not the first to question the value of English-language haiku.
Its History, Arts and Literature. The Imagist poet John Gould Fletcher seconded this sentiment in And Selected Haiku Excerpts were published in South by Southeast 6: When I run across it I generally enjoy it for its light verse. Ford published a chapbook of poems, Secret Haiku , in See also the Works Cited below.
It is excerpted in Modern Haiku Similar poems by Japanese Canadians, also often dealing with the problems of integration into Western society, were included in Howard and Duhaime. Modern Haiku published a substantial collection of internment camp haiku by Itaru Ina with his journal entries in issues Haiku Compass , 2.
Tarantino, and Nicholas Virgilio. Little , Alexis K. Dee Evetts became secretary and Charles Trumbull was named to edit and publish the HSA Newsletter, and its informational role was further expanded. Mark Brooks took over the editorship after the spring issue but managed only one issue before he was replaced by Pamela Miller Ness. Johnye Strickland became Newsletter editor in January Haiku Scenes and Native Dream Songs. This is what the Japanese call a kiyose, a list of English-language seasonal references and corresponding Japanese kigo. It is remarkable in that it also tabulates the occurrence of the seasonal words in eight haiku journals and anthologies.
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This listing includes works referred to directly and incidentally in the text and the notes. Addiss, Stephen, with Fumiko and Akira Yamamoto. The Four Seasons in Poems and Prints. Living Creatures in Poems and Prints. A Study of Zen in Haiku. The Windward Press, A History of Japanese Literature.
The San Francisco Haiku Anthology. Back Roads to Far Towns. Translated by Cid Corman and Susumu Kamaike. Translated and with an introduction by David Landis Barnhill. State University of New York Press, On Love and Barley: Translated from the Japanese with an introduction by Lucien Stryk.
Translated by Robert Bly. Illustrated by Arthur Okamura. January Haiku and Eye-Poems. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. His Life and Works. Peter Pauper Press, Beilenson, Peter, and Harry Behn, translators. Writing in Oral Tradition.
Japanese Haikus. Four Masters: Bashô, Buson, Issa and Shiki - Ibon Uribarri
University of Okla-homa Press, Michigan State University Press, The Sea and The Honeycomb: A Book of Tiny Poems. A History of Haiku. Bownas, Geoffrey, and Anthony Thwaite, editors and translators. The Penguin Book of Japanese Verse. Hawaii Education Association, Brooks, Randy, and Lee Gurga, editors. Haiku in Western Languages: An Annotated Bibliography With some reference to Senryu.
With the collaboration of David William Foster. Stanford University Press, Copper Canyon Press, American Poetry of the Twentieth Century. The Classical Poetry of the Japanese. Chenoweth, Helen Stiles, editor. A Book of American Haiku. A Little Spice-Box of Earth. McClelland and Stewart, The Gift to be Simple.
Making Cocoa for Kingsley Amis. Faber and Faber, Born of a Dream: Dacey, Philip and David Jauss. Black Current Press, There Is Always Tomorrow: Voice of the Peeper. Aether Press, February Aether Press, De-cember Illustrated by George Herms. Donegan, Patricia, and Yoshie Ishibashi. An Introduction to Poetry. The World of Richard Wright.
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University Press of Mississippi, The Four Seas Co. Drawings by Isamu Noguchi. Red Ozier Press, Columbia University Press, An Interview with Charles Henri Ford. From Here Press, Modern Haiku Press, Haiku Society of America, R Hail Books, The Little Book of Haiku. Illustrated by Kaji Aso. Barnes and Noble, The Sound of Water: Versions of Basho, Buson, and Issa. New and Selected Poems. Boston and New York: An Introduction to Japanese Haiku. The Japan Society, Inc.
An Introduction to Haiku: Twenty-five Pieces of Now.
Dewdrops, the long road towards the shortness of haiku
Reprinted in edited form in A Haiku Path , Haiku International Association, Poetry of the Natural World. Tokyo, New York and London: An International Poetry Almanac. Itadakimasu, Essays on Haiku and Senyru in English. How to Write, Share, and Teach Haiku. The Haiku and Prose of Hosai Ozaki. Translated by Hiroaki Sato. Stone Bridge Press, Ichikawa Sanchi, et al. Cape Jasmine and Pomegranates: Translated by Soichi Furuta. A Selection from the Poems of Issa.
Translated and introduced by Lewis Mackenzie. Translated by Lucien Stryk with the assistance of Noboru Fujiwara. Swallow Press of the Ohio University Press, Selected Haiku of Kobayashi Issa. Translated by David G. Asian Humanities Press, The Spring of My Life: Translated by Sam Hamill. Japan Air Lines, editor. Japan Air Lines, Hands Full of Stars: Artwork by Kaji Aso.
Kacian, Jim, and Dee Evetts, editors. Emerging Voices in English-language Haiku. Red Moon Press, A New Resonance 2: A New Resonance 3: Red Moon Press, [? A Glimpse of Red: The Red Moon Anthology, Snow on the Water: Tug of the Current: Edited by Oliver Statler. Kanterman, Leroy, editor and compiler. Keene, Donald, compiler and editor. Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature in the Modern Era.
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Edited and with an introduction by Regina Weinreich. City Lights Books, Grey Fox Press, It is also snow. It is also a flower. A male horse gets fired up. When this occurs, it is enough to melt the snow. It is enough to set the river on fire. There is an association in Japan between the falling of cherry blossoms, which occurs in spring, and dying a noble death. Language is the sky and the sky is made of language: The words in this haiku are written almost entirely in the simplified phonetic alphabets of hiragana and katakana , although more complex kanji exist.
The only kanji that remains is one of the most simple and airy available: In this diagram the sky read clockwise thins as the grasshopper spreads its wings. Words that were once represented in kanji , word pictures—grasshopper, Asia, light green—have been usurped by modernity and their inner lives abridged in favor of accessibility.
Moving up from the center of the diagram, the image of the grasshopper transforms into kanji , then to katakana , then to English. The haiku is as much about the dilution of the Japanese language as it is about the dilution of the green sky of Asia. We do not see, in hiragana , that leaping is the essence of the grasshopper, or that light green is thinning pampas grass made into language. One other difficult notion to translate here is that the batta , though it is commonly called a grasshopper, also refers to the locust, and that singular and plural nouns are often determined by context.
Thus, above the single grasshopper, or perhaps inside of it, the sky over Asia turns green in the time it takes an infinitude of locusts to leap, simultaneously, to fill the poem. They part and pop, as fire does, in play and on the planes of prairied minds. Popo itself is a wordless word, it is the seed of a word, a seed which bursts into flame as soon as it is spoken.
Haiku Society of America
Imagine a great gust of wind. Listen to the haiku read in the original Japanese and English homophonic translation by Martin Rock: As a result, the diagrams sometimes deconstruct words and phrases that may seem commonplace to the native speaker of Japanese in an effort to elucidate their inherent complexity. We hope this is a foreignizing text for both readers of English grappling with unfamiliar linguistic systems and for native speakers of Japanese viewing their language through the eyes of foreigners.
The translation of haiku is further complicated by cultural idiosyncrasies couched in language, such as the use of seasonal kigo to help color representation with recognizable social referents that are simply not present in English.