Systemtheorie - Methoden und Anwendungen für ein- und mehrdimensionale Systeme (German Edition)

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This system means that in reality there are no time in which nothing happens with a case — queuing time. Criminal cases are set down for trial a few days after they have been received. The courts seek to limit the delay between issue of proceedings and trial to a minimum, and in most cases the delay is less than 60 days. If a new date has to be fixed for the trial or if a trial already instituted has to be stayed or adjourned then a new trial will be set down as quickly as possibly. In those cases where this is not possible the case will be monitored via the system for registering time limits.

Civil cases are submitted for pre-trial proceedings immediately upon filing of the case. The length of the pre-trial proceedings depends on the nature of the case. The actual pre-trial proceedings and fixing of time limits for filing of pleadings are monitored via the system for registering time limits. As for further planning of the processing of each case please see our answer under III.

Joint answer to 4 and 5: The Danish Courts have drawn up some general targets for the Danish district courts as for the time of processing each case. Both the court account and the ongoing statistics review whether the general target figures are met. The District Court of Esbjerg meets the targets. At the District Court of Esbjerg Each district court hands out questionnaires to users, e. The survey showed that more than 90 per cent of the users at the District Court of Esbjerg were very satisfied or satisfied with the court.

Specific initiatives carried on within your court as regards timeframes of procedure [10]. Specific initiatives carried on within your court as regards timeframes of procedure. The District Court of Esbjerg has wide practical experience in improved efficiency as regards processing of cases in civil matters. After negotiations a fixed percentage distribution of cases between the lawyers has been determined.

A new case is automatically assigned to the lawyer who is next in line. In the court participated in a pilot project on process control. The main features are: In compliance with the Danish Administration of Justice Act a time limit for filing of a defence has been fixed at 14 days from service of the writ. If a defence is filed a time limit of 3 weeks are fixed for filing of a reply, unless - based on information in the writ and defence - it is more expedient to fix a time limit for draft list of questions to be answered by experts or the case without further pre-trial proceedings may be set down for trial.

At the same time as a time limit is fixed for filing of a reply or list of questions to be answered by experts or anything else a pre-trial hearing is scheduled to be held as soon as possible and within 3 weeks if the case cannot be set down for trial immediately. If both parties are represented by a lawyer the meeting is held as a conference call.

During the conference call the pre-trial hearing. The cases are never stayed or adjourned indefinitely. At the same time as a case is set down for judgment the court notifies the parties as specified by the Administration of Justice Act when judgment will be delivered. Or, if the parties waive service and notice, when judgment will be delivered at the latest. In accordance with the Administration of Justice Act judgments are always delivered no later than 6 weeks after the case has been set down for judgment.

By far the main part of the judgments is delivered considerably sooner. Since the number of pending cases has decreased drastically. As per 1 January there were pending cases and as per 21 June there were cases. The results could be further improved if external authorities, such as e. A possible future modification could be to provide a statutory basis stating that the public authorities which make statements to be used in legal proceedings are requested to announce upon receipt of the case when they will present such statements, and that a target is set for the timeframe of elaborating such statements, i.

Another possible modification could be to provide a statutory basis for the courts to be able to give default effect i. The provisions on default effects under the Administration of Justice Act were tightened in with a view to a more prompt attention to civil cases. The pilot project on process control was initiated by the Domstolsstyrelsen the Danish Court Administration. We find that the general strategies of. If all time limits and the trial date as described under III. If a meeting is held at an early stage in the process where the parties agree on the development of the case, there will be no queuing problems as the time up to the actual trial is used for the necessary pre-trial proceedings.

One could ensure well reasoned judgments by giving the lawyers the necessary time to process and consider the cases as well as to prepare the judgment. Process control gives the lawyers more time, as the case - once the schedule is determined and observed by the parties — does not need processing again by a lawyer until at the trial.

Prompt delivery of judgments is ensured by statutory provisions on specific time limits for delivery as well as on notification of the time of delivery of judgment when the case is set down for judgment. Work is under way in Denmark as regards a bill on processing of smaller cases. Cases are always set down for trial for a specific date. In large cases the lawyers are requested during the conference call the pre-trial hearing to prepare a joint schedule for the trial, including when the witnesses are summoned. A specific complaints system for slow processing of cases will take up resources which at present are used for processing of cases.

Pursuant to the Administration of Justice Act a non competent court shall transmit a case to the competent court if the court does not have territorial jurisdiction.


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Each year the court determines a target for number of cases expected to be processed, and an annual account is prepared as regards target attainment. This court account is made public. During the year there are monthly statistical follow-ups. In Denmark enforcement proceedings and notarial acts are an integrated part of the court and as such they are subject to the same statistical requirements. In large enforcement proceedings process control is applied in the same way as in civil cases.

Specific initiatives carried on within your court as regards timeframes of procedure: The District Court of Esbjerg tries criminal cases as the court of first instance. The court endeavours to observe the timeframes for processing of cases which the Danish Courts have set as targets for the various types of cases tried by courts of first instance. In order to live up to these targets the court registers all incoming criminal cases on the day they are received by the court and at the same time the case is set down for trial within the timeframe for processing of this specific case category allowing for the necessary time to process and complete the case on the same day or within a specific period of time.

The defence attorneys and prosecutors are notified of the trial date by letter whereas the other parties to the criminal case are summoned for the scheduled hearings.

The setting down of hearings has to take place considering the statutory time limits for summoning of hearings in the Danish courts. In criminal cases sentences are delivered during the final hearing of the case. In connection with the sentencing the parties to the criminal case are informed of the ratio decidendi of the case and they receive instructions on how to appeal.

The delivered sentence will be forwarded to the parties of the criminal case within a week after the sentencing. Pursuant to Danish law the court may set down a criminal case for sentencing. Pursuant to the Danish Administration of Justice Act a sentence in such situations shall be delivered no later than a week after the trial is completed.

Salvaneschi, Laura [WorldCat Identities]

The consequence of this procedure is that the processing of criminal cases at the District Court of Esbjerg is very short. In our opinion the initiatives described above could also be introduced in other European countries which have a criminal justice system which is based on the same principles as the Danish system. If the prosecution service and the defence attorney can clarify motions for evidence and questions concerning character evidence prior to the trial the defendant s may expect that sentence can be delivered upon completion of the trial, cf.

Section a of the Administration of Justice Act, i. Criminal cases are set down for trial in the order they are received by the court. Pursuant to Section a of the Administration of Justice Act sentences in criminal cases shall as a principal rule be delivered on the day the trial is completed, however, there is statutory basis for suspending delivery of the sentence up to one week after the trial is completed. Danish courts try all types of criminal cases, and Danish judges try all case categories. The prosecution service prepares lists of evidence in criminal cases stating the date and time where the defendant s and witnesses are examined.

The witnesses are summoned by the prosecution service to appear on the date and time stated in the list of evidence. The judges make sure that motions for evidence leading to staying of a criminal case are followed up by fixing either official time limits or internal time limits. Detailed rules on jurisdiction in criminal cases are laid down in the Administration of Justice Act. Departure from these rules may under specific circumstances be decided by a high court, cf. Section of the Administration of Justice Act, and by a district court based on witnesses domicile or if for some other special reason it is deemed expedient, cf.

Section of the Administration of Justice Act. Reference is made to the answers made as regards civil cases. This question is not relevant to criminal cases. A court of general jurisdiction. For the whole staff. A court of general jurisdiction at appellate level. The court operates in two chambers with general jurisdiction and each chamber in two teams with 3 justices and 3,5 referendaries. The Court is headed by the President with an assisting group and a chief secretary.

An appeal court, hears appeals against the acts of authorities. An administrative court of general jurisdiction. The annual number of incoming cases all administrative cases has varied between in the years The situation of the judicial time frames in your court. Annual number of incoming cases: Annual number of judicial decisions: Number of pending cases: Average lenght of proceedings: Annual number of convicted persons: Annual number of acquitted persons: Number of pending cases of more than 3 years: Average length of proceedings: Answer to questions n: The statistical registrar systems in courts provides the chief judges with information on the situation of each individual case on a daily basis.

When there is a case with a significantly long proceeding or time in which nothing happens with the case it is possible to ask the judge in charge to explain the reasons for delay. The court management sets annually a target as regards average duration of procedures for each type of cases civil, criminal etc. This target is set on a court level but not to an individual judge. The court has not organised, nor planned, surveys of its own.

However, a few years ago a nation-wide survey to measure public trust with courts was published.


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We have not had any special initiatives. At the moment in Finland there is work going on to draft common standards and indicators to measure the quality of court procedures. Here it is essential that the party involved is informed about the transmission. Nevertheless, there has been several negotiations and.

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One has to bear in mind that in Finland the enforcement of judgments is not in the responsibility of courts. The cases are managed all the time. The preparation starts immediately after filing the case and it is supervised by the judge justice in charge of preparation. However, there is some waiting time before the case is heard, because the case must be prepared before the hearing for example, getting responces and fixing trial dates and because of preparion other cases.

We have a computerised case management system called Lotus Notus, which contains information on the cases, their stages filed, pending etc and the preparation measures. This system offers possibilities for geneneral and ad hoc queries. The lenghts of the proceedings can be evaluated and monitored with the help of statistical information.

Some of the information is based on the Lotus Notes program. The rest of the information is gathered by the special questionary following up each case. The Lotus Notes program offers 16 different standard reports. The reports can also be produced by the Business Objects -product offering 28 different standard reports. This reporting system is designed by the Ministery of Justice for the common. The most important statistics about the lenghts of the proceedings are those of the the backlogs, the databases of the timeframes, the databases of the cases decided more than four months ago these cases are decided in written procedure, cases decided in trials must be handed out in one month and the databases of the cases older than one year.

Statistics are also tools for controlling the case management of the justice and referendary. It means that the Court of Appeal verifies that the decision of the lower court is evidently correct. These decisions should be made in two months. The databases mentioned above are monitored in our Court by the President and the leading justices of the four teams we have. In the case of delay the problems are to be solved by special arrangements. The timeframes are similar to all civil and criminal cases. As to the indicators see the above mentioned statistics and databases.

The research was conducted through a survey addressed to private appellants from the jurisdictions of the Helsinki and Rovaniemi Courts of Appeal. One point of view in this project will be the public trust and the satisfaction on the court services. Specific initiatives carried on within your court as regards timeframes of procedure [11]. The timeframes in our Court have been the sortest in the country.

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The working methods can be one explanion among others. Also the internal surveillance system together with the external one seems to have met its goals well. One important challange as to the timeframes is the cooperation with our interest groups; prosecutors and councels.

One innovation can also be the above mentioned system of quality measurement. The timeframes will be one part of it. The Rovaniemi Court of Appeal can adopt the system in tailored form and to be joined to this theme of pilots courts. The English translation of the project will be send to you when the measures are ready to be adopted. Our iniativive to measure the quality of procedure is supported and sponsored by the Ministery of Justice. This system belongs to the larger Quality Project managed by the Rovaniemi Court of Appeal for six years.

The project has mainly focused on the procedures in the district courts. The project has every year produced and published the reports of its working groups. This project is supported by its interests groups because they receive training and are able to discuss the working methods within this project. The project has also received the annual recognition from the Finnish Bar Association.

Salvaneschi, Laura

The iniative could be usable in other courts, especially as far as the timeframes are concerned. The future development could be the information supplied to parties. The next phase of the program will involve making selected information available over the intranet. If these changes of the program can be implemented, it will prove of great utility to parties and reduce the enquiries about the status of various cases. Our internal directions for case management provided a tailored program for each case and directions how the parties should be informed.

The program includes the estimated timeframe for written pre-trial phase and information about possible pre- trial hearings and trial itself. Other challenge will be the trial window system. That means that we must be ready to fix the trial date or period within which the trial will take place as soon as possible.

In our system this means also fixed working plans in teams for months forward. Our regional hearings are managed and reservations for coutrooms done in coordination with our four teams. The problems will arise with busy procecutors and councels. The parties must be provided a timetable and the priorities. The councels and procecutors are provided for comments.

Wittnesses are called in accordance with fixed time and heard by phone if possible. The contact person for the Rovaniemi Court of Appeal. Annual number of incoming cases Annual number of judicial decisions Number of pending cases not completed in the year All the steps in the proceedings are registered into the IT-based case management system. All queuing times can be monitored and analysed. Statistics concerning the oldest cases can be produced. The judges and the referendaries are expected to monitor their own cases.

Head judge of each section monitors the cases. Also the management group, which consists of the Chief Judge and the head judges of the three sections monitor the cases. While, others will be able to agree on how to divide property and share We believe that children in divorce should be at the center but not in the middle of the issues their parents need to resolve. Collaborative practice provides children with advocacy, support and a voice in the process based on the idea that children deserve the best parenting they can get from both parents.

To that end, neutral child specialists In a Collaborative divorce, there are experts who will help you gather the information you need to make decisions about money and your financial future. Collaborative professionals can help support you or provide resources to help you take care of yourself when coping with divorce. Do not wait until the divorce is final to begin paying attention to things like: Healthy Eating and Exercise. Healthy eating and exercise are known to be directly connected to mood and overall emotional health.

Keeping your body properly fueled with a Choosing the right process can make all the difference. The process is client-driven, rather than attorney-driven. There is no pain-free way to end a marriage, but the Spiega come funziona il processo collaborativo: In ogni caso, impone di ritornare e ripartire dalla fiducia, pietra fondante MA, via Ruggero di Lauria n. Traduzione italiana di Marco Calabrese, avvocato Testo originale di J.

As a Collaborative Lawyer knows well both sides sign a participation agreement to disclose all documents and information that relate to the issues. All participants agree to work together respectfully, honestly, and in good faith to try to find win-win solutions to the legitimate needs of both parties.

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Both lawyers involve their professional integrity on ensuring voluntary disclosure of necessary information. The special power that Collaborative Law has to lead to creative conflict resolution seems to happen only when the Nella Sentenza Cengiz Kilic c. Il timore di perdere il potere corrompe Sono eventi che generano sentimenti di profonda afflizione, sofferenza, rabbia, rimorso e tristezza.

Questo vale sia per gli adulti che per i figli. L'oggetto del nuovo arbitrato societario by Laura Salvaneschi 1 edition published in in Italian and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide. I motivi di impugnazione del lodo: Provvedimenti presidenziali nell' interesse dei coniugi e della prole e procedimento cautelare uniforme by Laura Salvaneschi 1 edition published in in Italian and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide.

Mesures provisoires et arbitrage en droit italien by Laura Salvaneschi 1 edition published in in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide. Sulla nozione di arbitrato internazionale by Laura Salvaneschi 1 edition published in in Italian and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide. I procedimenti di istruzione preventiva by Laura Salvaneschi 1 edition published in in Italian and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide.