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The accompaniment below the cantus creates an unusually dense texture. There are three accompanying voices, often closely scored: The accompaniment in each lower voice is constructed from its own separate motifs, each having its own characteristic rhythm. Although the longer figures in the two lowest voices are heard several times throughout the piece, Bach's ingenious writing gives no sense of artifice or mechanical repetition.

In addition, as Williams notes, the outer and inner voices are naturally paired: The pedal starts off with a cross motif in quavers, which recurs throughout the composition. These create constant dissonances with the cantus which are resolved only by the cadence at the close.

The syncopated crotchets in the pedal also interrupt the fermatas at the end of each cantus line, giving a further sense of restlessness. The alto part is characterised by falling anapaests ; while the tenor line is made up of two parts, the first a rising semiquaver figure and the second shorter semiquaver cross motifs descending in sequence. As the piece progresses the motifs become more concentrated, with the alto taking up some of the tenor motifs towards the close. These novel features mark a departure from the more standard settings of the hymn by Bach's predecessors such as Fischer which conform more closely to the stile antico.

Many commentators have interpreted the compositional form and motifs of BWV in terms of the themes of the Passiontide hymn, primarily concerned with the crucifixion. Spitta wrote that Christ's hanging on the cross "is represented by the heavy, syncopated notes" and takes this as "evidence of a wonderfully true aesthetic feeling" [in Bach], since "that enforced quietude of direst anguish was no real calm.

Similar motifs and handling of voices occur at the close of Von Himmel hoch, da komm ich her, BWV The cantus firmus , composed in by Matthias Greitter and associated with Whitsuntide , was also later used with the same words for the closing chorale of the first part of the St Matthew Passion , taken from the version of the St John Passion.

Bach ornamented the simple melody, in twelve phrases reflecting the twelve lines of the opening verse, with an elaborate coloratura. It recalls but also goes beyond the ornamental chorale preludes of Buxtehude. The ornamentation, although employing conventional musical figures, is highly original and inventive.

While the melody in the upper voice is hidden by coloratura over a wide range, the two inner voices are simple and imitative above the continuo-style bass. Bach varies the texture and colouring of the accompaniment for each line of what is one of the longest melodies in the collection. It has been taken by some commentators as a musical allusion to the words kreuze lange in the text: Below is the text of the hymn with the English translation of Benjamin Hall Kennedy.

It closely follows the four voices of Bach's earlier harmonisation in the four-part chorale BWV , with virtually no changes in the cantus firmus. It is derived from the final descending notes of the melody:. The semiquaver motif runs continuously throughout the piece, passing from one lower voice to another.

Commentators have given different interpretations of what the motif might symbolise: Some have also seen the suspensions between bars as representing "the bonds of death". These interpretations can depend on the presumed tempo of the chorale prelude. At a faster tempo, as has become more common, the mood becomes more exultant and vigorous, with a climax at the words Gott loben und dankbar sein "praise our God right heartily" , where the music becomes increasingly chromatic.

Weichet nur, betrübte Schatten, BWV202

Williams suggests that the motif might then resemble the Gewalt "power" motif in the cello part of BWV 4, verse 3 ; and that the turmoil created by the rapidly changing harmonies in some bars might echo the word Krieg "war" in verse 4. Below is the text of the three verses of the Easter hymn Christ ist erstanden with the English translation of Myles Coverdale.

Throughout Thuringia and Saxony this became the hymn that the congregation sang as the priest entered the pulpit before delivering his Sunday sermon. Johann Gottfried Walther , Bach's distant cousin and the organist in the Stadtkirche in Weimar, also set the hymn as a chorale prelude and as a partita with many variations. BWV is written for single keyboard and pedal with the cantus firmus in the soprano part: The same suspirans triad motif, like a broken chord or arpeggio , forms the basis of the accompaniment in the two inner voices: More than a simple accompaniment, the push the harmonies forward, revealing it unexpectedly at every turn.

Below them the pedal bass provides a distinctive accompaniment in quavers and crotchets, starting off with a quaver triad. Although largely moving in steps, like a walking bass , the pedal plays a type of canon two octaves below the cantus. The canon is itself disguised, in crotchets in the first half with the same rhythm as the soprano; but in the second half it is heard in fragmentary form at double the speed in quavers. The reprise of the second part differs from the hymn as it appears in hymnbooks; but the stream of repeated triadic motifs—which Schweitzer a interpreted as constant repetitions of Herr Jesu Christ —add to the mood of supplication in the chorale prelude.

Hermann Keller has suggested that Bach might have employed the canon as musical iconography for the plea to be "led" at the end of the first verse: Below is the first verse of Tobias Clausnitzer's hymn with the English translation of Catherine Winkworth. Below are the first and last two verses of the Lutheran catechism hymn of the Ten Commandments with an English translation by George MacDonald.

The Lutheran Erfurter Enchiridion of contains the text with the melody, which was also used for In Gottes Nahmen fahren wir , a pilgrims' hymn. The chorale prelude BWV is in the mixolydian mode with the cantus firmus in the soprano voice in simple minims. The accompaniment in the three lower voices is built up from two motifs each containing the repeated notes that characterise the theme.

It also occurs in inverted form. This emphatic hammering motif is passed imitatively between the lower voices as a form of canon. The second motif, first heard in the alto part in bars 2 and 3, is made up of five groups of 4 semiquavers, individual groups being related by inversion first and fifth and reflection second and third.

The second motif is passed from voice to voice in the accompaniment—there are two passages where it is adapted to the pedal with widely spaced semiquavers alternating between the feet—providing an unbroken stream of semiquavers complementing the first motif. The combined affekt of the four parts, with 25 repetitions of the quaver motif, is one of "confirming" the biblical laws chanted in the verses of the hymn.

There is likewise a reference to "law" in the canon of the quaver motif. For Spitta the motif had "an inherent organic connection with the chorale itself. The attempts of Schweitzer have been criticised: Harvey Grace felt that Bach was "expressing the idea of insistence, order, dogma—anything but statistics. Following the publication of the text and melody in , the hymn was used in many choral and organ compositions.

He used it in cantatas BWV 90 , and with a different text. Amongst the early organ compositions on Vater unser attributed to Bach, only the chorale prelude BWV has been ascribed with any certainty. In the chorale prelude BWV the plain cantus firmus is in the soprano voice. The accompaniment in the inner parts and pedal is based on a four-note semiquaver suspirans motif i.

In turn Bach's slight alteration of the melody in bars 1 and 3 might have been dictated by his choice of motif. The two forms of the motif and their inversions pass from one lower voice to another, producing a continuous stream of semiquavers; semiquavers in one voice are accompanied by quavers in the other two.


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The combined effect is of the harmonisation of a chorale by arpeggiated chords. Hermann Keller even suggested that Bach might have composed the chorale prelude starting from an earlier harmonisation; as Williams points out, however, although the harmonic structure adheres to that of a four-part chorale, the pattern of semiquavers and suspended notes is different for each bar and always enhances the melody, sometimes in unexpected ways.

Below are the first and seventh verses of the hymn written in by Lazarus Spengler with an English translation by John Christian Jacobi. The penitential text, written in the Nuremberg of Hans Sachs and the Meistersingers where Spengler was town clerk, is concerned with "human misery and ruin," faith and redemption; it encapsulates some of the central tenets of the Lutheran Reformation.

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The melody, originally for a Reformation battle hymn of , was first published with Spengler's text in Scored for single manual and pedal, the unadorned cantus firmus is in the soprano voice. Beneath the melody in a combination of four different motifs, the inner parts wind sinuously in an uninterrupted line of semiquavers, moving chromatically in steps.

Below them the pedal responds to the melodic line with downward leaps in diminished, major and minor sevenths , punctuated by rests. Bach's ingenious writing is constantly varying. The expressive mood is heightened by the fleeting modulations between minor and major keys; and by the dissonances between the melody and the chromatic inner parts and pedal.

The abrupt leaps in the pedal part create unexpected changes in key; and halfway through the chorale prelude the tangled inner parts are inverted to produce an even stranger harmonic texture, resolved only in the final bars by the modulation into a major key. The chorale prelude has generated numerous interpretations of its musical imagery, its relation to the text and to baroque affekt. Williams records that the dissonances might symbolise original sin, the downward leaps in the pedal the fall of Adam, and the modulations at the close hope and redemption; the rests in the pedal part could be examples of the affekt that the seventeenth century philosopher Athanasius Kircher called "a sighing of the spirit.

Terry described the pedal part as "a series of almost irremediable stumbles"; in contrast Ernst Arfken saw the uninterrupted cantus firmus as representing constancy in faith. For Wolfgang Budday, Bach's departure from normal compositional convention was itself intended to symbolise the "corruption" and "depravity" of man. Spitta also preferred to view Bach's chorale prelude as representing the complete text of the hymn instead of individual words, distinguishing it from Buxtehude's earlier precedent. Considered to be amongst his most expressive compositions— Snyder describes it as "imbued with sorrow"—Buxtehude's setting employs explicit word-painting.

The text treats a central Lutheran theme—only faith in God is required for redemption. The melody is from an Easter hymn. In the chorale prelude BWV for single manual and pedal, the cantus firmus is in the soprano voice in simple crotchets. The accompaniment in the inner voices is built on a four-note motif—derived from the hymn tyne—a descending semiquaver scale, starting with a rest or "breath" suspirans: Below them the pedal is a walking bass in quavers, built on the inverted motif and octave leaps, pausing only to mark the cadences at the end of each line of the hymn.

The combination of the four parts conveys a joyous mood, similar to that of BWV and For Hermann Keller, the running quavers and semiquavers "suffuse the setting with health and strength. Both have similar rhythmic structures in the parts, but one is in a minor key with complex chromatic harmonies, the other in a major key with firmly diatonic harmonies.

Pure in style, this ornamental chorale prelude has been described as "a supplication in time of despair. It is possible that the unusual choice of key followed Bach's experience playing the new organ at Halle which employed more modern tuning. The ornamented melody in crotchets quarter notes sings in the soprano above a flowing legato semiquaver 16th note accompaniment and gently pulsating repeated quavers eighth notes in the pedal continuo. Such viol-like semiquaver figures in the middle voice already appeared as "imitatio violistica" in the Tabalutara nova of Samuel Scheidt.

The instrumental combination itself was used elsewhere by Bach: Below is the first verse of the hymn of Adam Reissner with the English translation of Catherine Winkworth. The text of the hymn is derived from the first six lines of Psalm 31 and was associated with two different melodies, in major and minor keys. The hymn tune in the major key was used many times by Bach, most notably in the funeral cantata BWV , the Christmas Oratorio and the St. BWV is the only occasion he used the melody in the minor key, which can be traced back to an earlier reformation hymn tune for Christ ist erstanden and medieval plainsong for Christus iam resurrexit.

In Bach's chorale prelude BWV , the cantus firmus is in the soprano voice, several times held back for effect. Beneath it the two inner voices—often in thirds—and the pedal provide an accompaniment based on a motif derived from the melody, a falling three-note anapaest consisting of two semiquavers and a quaver. The motif is passed imitatively down through the voices, often developing into more flowing passages of semiquavers; the motif in the pedal has an added quaver and—punctuated by rests—is more fragmentary.

The harmonies resulting from the combined voices produce a hymn-like effect. Schweitzer described the anapaest as a "joy" motif; to Hermann Keller it symbolised "constancy". For Williams , the angular motifs and richer subdued textures in the lower registers are consonant with the "firm hope" of the text, in contrast to more animated evocations of joy. Below are the first two verses of the hymn of Paul Eber with the English translation of Catherine Winkworth. The cantus firmus of this ornamental chorale prelude was written by Louis Bourgeois in The accompaniment in the two middle voices, often in parallel sixths, and the pedal is derived from the first four notes of the melody.

The highly ornate ornamentation is rare amongst Bach's chorale preludes, the only comparable example being BWV from the Great Eighteen. The vocal ornamentation and portamento appoggiaturas of the melody are French in style. Coloratura passages lead into the unadorned notes of the cantus firmus. Williams describes this musical device, used also in BWV and BWV , as a means of conveying "a particular kind of touching, inexpressible expressiveness.

The melody was also composed by Neumark: Neumark originally wrote the melody in 3 2 time. In the chorale prelude BWV , the unadorned cantus firmus in 4 4 time is in the soprano voice. The two inner voices, often in thirds, are built on a motif made up of two short beats followed by a long beat—an anapaest —often used by Bach to signify joy for example in BWV , , , , , , , , , and The pedal has a walking bass which also partly incorporates the joy motif in its responses to the inner voices.

For Schweitzer the accompaniment symbolised "the joyful feeling of confidence in God's goodness. Below are the first and last two verses of the funeral hymn of Johann Georg Albinus with the English translation of Catherine Winkworth. A mood of ecstasy permeates this chorale prelude, a funeral hymn reflecting the theme of heavenly joy. The simple cantus firmus sings in crotchets quarter notes above an accompanying motif of three semiquavers 16th notes followed by two quavers eighth notes that echoes between the two inner parts and the pedal. Schweitzer describes its use by Bach as a motif of "beatific peace", commenting that "the melody of the hymn that speaks of the inevitability of death is thus enveloped in a motif that is lit up by the coming glory.

Below are the first and last verses of Michael Franck's hymn of with the English translation of Sir John Bowring. Bach's title conforms to a later hymnbook from Weimar which inverted the order throughout. The chorale prelude is in four voices for single manual with pedals. The cantus firmus in the sporano voice is a simple form of the hymn tune in crotchets. The motif in the pedal is a constant three-note quaver figure, with octave leaps punctuated by frequent rests.

Above this bass, the inner voices weave a continuous pattern of descending and ascending scales in semiquavers, constantly varying, sometimes moving in the same direction and sometimes in contrary motion. This texture of flowing scales over a "quasi-pizzicato" bass captures the theme of the hymn: To Spitta the scales "hurry by like misty ghosts. Exceptionally Bach scored the final chord of this nebulous piece without pedal. A similar device has been used by Bach for the word inanes "empty" in the ninth movement of his Magnificat. Stinson also sees similarities with Bach's omission of a bass part in Wie zittern und wanken from cantata BWV , an aria concerned with the uncertainties in the life of a sinner.

It is now called Stadtschloss to distinguish it from other palaces in and it was the residence of the dukes of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach, and has also been called Residenzschloss. It forms part of the World Heritage Site Classical Weimar, in history, it was often destroyed by fire. The Baroque palace from the 17th century, with the church Schlosskirche where several works by Johann Sebastian Bach were premiered, was replaced by a Neoclassical structure after a fire in From , the building has housed the Schlossmuseum, a museum with a focus on paintings of the 15th and 16th centuries and works of art related to Weimar, the building has been developed over the past years.

The first building on the site was a moated castle. After a fire in , and again from the midth century, after another fire in , reconstruction began in planned by the Italian architect Giovanni Bonalino. The church was completed in , where works by Johann Sebastian Bach were premiered between and In the s Johann Moritz Richter was engaged by Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar to modify the design to a symmetrical Baroque structure with three wings, open to the south.

After Wilhelms death in , the new building known as the Wilhelmsburg. The building was destroyed by fire in , Duke Carl August formed a commission for its reconstruction directed by Johann Wolfgang Goethe. Decoration was supplied by sculptor Christian Friedrich Tieck, in , Clemens Wenzeslaus Coudray began plans for the west wing, which was reopened in with a court chapel.

From to a south wing was added under Duke Wilhelm Ernst, the Herder Room was restored in , the restoration of the Goethe Room and the Wieland Room was completed in The building has been used as a museum since , the Schlossmuseum presents exhibitions focused on paintings from to related to the history of Weimar. Weimar — Weimar is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately 80 kilometres southwest of Leipzig, kilometres north of Nuremberg and kilometres west of Dresden.

Together with the neighbour-cities Erfurt and Jena it forms the metropolitan area of Thuringia with approximately , inhabitants. Weimar is well known because of its cultural heritage and its importance in German history. The city was a point of the German Enlightenment and home of the leading characters of the literary genre of Weimar Classicism.

Archaeological finds dating back to the Thuringii epoch show that the Weimar part of the Ilm valley was settled early, the oldest records regarding Weimar date to The Weimar settlement emerged around the wooden castle and two small churches dedicated to St Peter, and to St James.

In , the count founded the monastery in Oberweimar. Soon after, the counts of Weimar founded the town, which was an independent parish since , from the citizens used their own seal. Nevertheless, the influence of the Weimar counts was declining as the influence of the Wettins in Thuringia increased. Hence, the new town was relatively marginal in a regional context. The settlement around St James Church developed into a suburb during the 13th century, after becoming part of the Wettins territory in , urban development improved.

Weimar acquired woad trade privileges in , the castle and the walls were finished in the 16th century, making Weimar into a full city. Bachs compositions include the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations, the Mass in B minor and his music is revered for its technical command, artistic beauty, and intellectual depth. He is now regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time. Bach was born in Eisenach, in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach and his father Johann Ambrosius Bach was the director of the town musicians, and all of his uncles were professional musicians.

His father probably taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, apparently at his own initiative, Bach attended St. He was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin. His uncles were all musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians. One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, Bachs mother died in , and his father died eight months later. The year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, there he studied, performed, and copied music, including his own brothers, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private and blank ledger paper of that type was costly.

He received valuable teaching from his brother, who instructed him on the clavichord, also during this time he was taught theology, Latin, Greek, French and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 April Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bachs elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. His two years there were critical in exposing Bach to a range of European culture.

In addition to singing in the choir, he played the Schools three-manual organ and he came into contact with sons of aristocrats from northern Germany, sent to the highly selective school to prepare for careers in other disciplines. Johns Church and possibly used the famous organ from His role there is unclear, but it probably included menial, non-musical duties, despite strong family connections and a musically enthusiastic employer, tension built up between Bach and the authorities after several years in the post.

Bach was dissatisfied with the standard of singers in the choir and he called one of them a Zippel Fagottist. Leipzig — Leipzig is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of , inhabitants it is Germanys tenth most populous city, Leipzig is located about kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleisse, and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire. The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing.

Leipzig later played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, through events which took place in, Leipzig today is an economic center and the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution. Outside of Leipzig the Neuseenland district forms a lake area of approximately square kilometres.

Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means settlement where the linden trees stand, an older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic. In the Nazi government officially renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig, the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.

Leipzig was first documented in in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city, Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. During the Thirty Years War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls, the first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in and the second in Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side, on 24 December , an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced.

The city employed light guards who had to follow a schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the lanterns. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to the First World War, in the Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed. The railway station has two entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways. Schweitzer, a Lutheran, challenged both the view of Jesus as depicted by historical-critical methodology current at this time, as well as the traditional Christian view.

The tiny village is home to the Association Internationale Albert Schweitzer, the medieval parish church of Gunsbach was shared by the Protestant and Catholic congregations, which held their prayers in different areas at different times on Sundays. This compromise arose after the Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years War, Schweitzer, the pastors son, grew up in this exceptional environment of religious tolerance, and developed the belief that true Christianity should always work towards a unity of Faith and Purpose. Schweitzers first language was the Alsatian dialect of German, at the Mulhouse Gymnasium he received his Abitur in In he played for the French organist Charles-Marie Widor, for whom Johann Sebastian Bachs organ-music contained a mystic sense of the eternal, Widor, deeply impressed, agreed to teach Schweitzer without fee, and a great and influential friendship thus began.

S, Schweitzer served his one-year compulsory military service in Schweitzer saw many operas of Richard Wagner in Strasbourg and in he managed to afford a visit to the Bayreuth to see Wagners Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal which deeply impressed him. Schweitzer rapidly gained prominence as a scholar and organist, dedicated also to the rescue, restoration. With theological insight, he interpreted the use of pictorial and symbolical representation in J.

Bachs religious music and they were works of devotional contemplation in which the musical design corresponded to literary ideas, conceived visually. Widor had not grown up with knowledge of the old Lutheran hymns. The exposition of ideas, encouraged by Widor and Munch, became Schweitzers last task. There was great demand for a German edition, but, instead of translating it, the result was two volumes, which were published in and translated into English by Ernest Newman in Schweitzers interpretative approach greatly influenced the understanding of Bachs music.

Glockenspiel — A glockenspiel is a percussion instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano. In this way, it is similar to the xylophone, however, the glockenspiel, moreover, is usually smaller and higher in pitch. In German, a carillon is also called a Glockenspiel, while in French, in music scores the glockenspiel is sometimes designated by the Italian term campanelli.

When used in a marching or military band, the bars are mounted in a portable case and held vertically. However, sometimes the bars are held using a harness similar to a marching snare harness. In orchestral use, the bars are mounted horizontally, a pair of hard, unwrapped mallets, generally with heads made of plastic or metal, are used to strike the bars, although mallet heads can also be made of rubber. If laid out horizontally, a keyboard glockenspiel may be contrived by adding a keyboard to the instrument to facilitate playing chords, another method of playing chords is to use four mallets, two per hand.

The glockenspiel is limited to the register, and usually covers about two and a half to three octaves, but can also reach up to three and a half octaves. The glockenspiel is an instrument, its parts are written two octaves below the sounding notes. When struck, the give an very pure, bell-like sound. Glockenspiels are quite popular and appear in almost all genres of music ranging from hip-hop to jazz.

Solo glockenspiel can be heard briefly, but notably at the beginning of Shostakovichs 15th Symphony, a modern example of the glockenspiel can be heard in Steve Reichs —71 composition Drumming, in which the glockenspiel plays a major role in the third and fourth movements. Other instruments that work on the same principle as the glockenspiel include the marimba.

The Dulcitone has a sound to the glockenspiel since its sound is made by hammers striking tuning forks. The dulcitone uses soft hammers which damp the forks, compared to the hammers of the glockenspiel. Buxtehude is a steadily growing medium-sized town and the second largest in the district of Stade and it lies on the southern borders of the Altes Land within easy reach of the city-state of Hamburg. West of it are the towns of Horneburg and Stade and to the south there are incorporated villages offering mostly upscale housing, in a settlement by the Este river is first recorded.

The farmer colony called Buochstadon is given to the cloister of Magdeburg, soon a wharf, Hude, is established. In the settlement is called Buchstadihude referring to the successful quay, in the Duchy of Saxony, to which Buchstadihude belonged, is conquered and dissolved.

Buxtehude becomes part of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, newly upgraded to imperial immediacy it became one of the successor states of the Duchy of Saxony. Nevertheless, in respect, Buxtehude remained a part of the Diocese of Verden until Catholic affinity faded in the Reformation with that diocese remaining vacant since In two royal settlers found a Benedictine cloister in the surrounding of the village.

In the prince-archbishop Giselbert of Bremen orders the place to be protected by defensive walls, in the town hall is mentioned for the first time and the settlement is granted full town privileges, modelled according to those of Hamburg. By now Buxtehude is self-governing advancing to a trading town, in the immensely wealthy Master Halepaghen as the cousin tutor of the burgomaster of Hamburg dies and donates his assets to the town for scholarships and charitable purposes.

In the town council of Buxtehude adopted Lutheranism for its municipality, in s the Hanseatic trade declines and cattle trade becomes majorly important. Besides Stade, Buxtehude is the crossover over the Elbe river. In Buxtehude surrendered to the Swedish army and loses its independence, in the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen, which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish and from on by the Hanoveran Crown.

In the link road through the town business and trade. Much living space in Hamburg was bombed out and people flee to the suburbs and exurbs such as Buxtehude, in Buxtehude is decided to be in charge of reconstructing much of Hamburg after the war and thus is heavily funded with government money. His organ works represent a part of the standard organ repertoire and are frequently performed at recitals.

He composed in a variety of vocal and instrumental idioms. Today, Buxtehude is considered one of the most important composers in Germany of the mid-Baroque and he is thought to have been born with the name Diderich Buxtehude. His parents were Johannes Buxtehude and Helle Jespersdatter and his father originated from Oldesloe in the Duchy of Holstein, which at that time was a part of the Danish Monarchy.

Others, however, claim that he was born at Oldesloe, later in his life he Germanized his name and began signing documents Dieterich Buxtehude. His father — Johannes Buxtehude — was the organist at St. Buxtehudes last post, from , was at the Marienkirche, there he succeeded Franz Tunder and followed in many of the footsteps of his predecessor.

He married Tunders daughter Anna Margarethe in — it was not uncommon practice that a man marry the daughter of his predecessor in his occupation, Buxtehude and Anna Margarethe had seven daughters who were baptized at the Marienkirche, however, his first daughter died as an infant. Dieterichs brother Peter, a barber, joined them in , in , Handel and Mattheson both traveled to meet Buxtehude, who was by then elderly and ready to retire.

In addition to his duties, Buxtehude, like his predecessor Tunder. His surviving church music is praised for its musical qualities rather than its progressive elements. The bulk of Buxtehudes oeuvre consists of music, which covers a wide variety of styles, and organ works. Chamber music constitutes a part of the surviving output, although the only chamber works Buxtehude published during his lifetime were fourteen chamber sonatas. Founded in in Saybrook Colony to train Congregationalist ministers, it is the third-oldest institution of education in the United States.

Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century the school introduced graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools, the undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.

The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States, Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. Almost all faculty teach courses, more than 2, of which are offered annually.

Supreme Court Justices,20 living billionaires, and many heads of state. In addition, Yale has graduated hundreds of members of Congress,57 Nobel laureates,5 Fields Medalists, Rhodes Scholars, and Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the University. Yale traces its beginnings to An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School, passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9,, the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut.

Originally known as the Collegiate School, the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, the school moved to Saybrook, and then Wethersfield. In the college moved to New Haven, Connecticut, the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not.

Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to Yale College, meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale. The shipment of books represented the best of modern English literature, science, philosophy and it had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Lockes works and developed his original theology known as the new divinity.

Fugue — A fugue usually has three sections, an exposition, a development, and a final entry that contains the return of the subject in the fugues tonic key. In the Middle Ages, the term was used to denote any works in canonic style, by the Renaissance. Since the 17th century, the fugue has described what is commonly regarded as the most fully developed procedure of imitative counterpoint.

Most fugues open with a main theme, the subject, which then sounds successively in each voice, when each voice has entered. This is often followed by a passage, or episode, developed from previously heard material. In this sense, a fugue is a style of composition, the form evolved during the 18th century from several earlier types of contrapuntal compositions, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios, canzonas, and fantasias. With the decline of sophisticated styles at the end of the period, the fugues central role waned, eventually giving way as sonata form.

The English term fugue originated in the 16th century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fuga and this in turn comes from Latin, also fuga, which is itself related to both fugere and fugare. A fugue begins with the exposition and is according to certain predefined rules, in later portions the composer has more freedom. Further entries of the subject will occur throughout the fugue, repeating the accompanying material at the same time, the various entries may or may not be separated by episodes.

After the statement of the subject, a second voice enters and states the subject with the subject transposed to another key, to make the music run smoothly, it may also have to be altered slightly. A tonal answer is called for when the subject begins with a prominent dominant note. To prevent an undermining of the sense of key, this note is transposed up a fourth to the tonic rather than up a fifth to the supertonic.

Answers in the subdominant are also employed for the same reason, while the answer is being stated, the voice in which the subject was previously heard continues with new material. If this new material is reused in later statements of the subject, it is called a countersubject, if this material is only heard once. The countersubject is written in invertible counterpoint at the octave or fifteenth, for example, when the note G sounds in one voice above the note C in lower voice, the interval of a fifth is formed, which is considered consonant and entirely acceptable.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Autograph manuscript of BWV Cranach altarpiece in St Peter und Paul, where Bach played the organ. Wilhelmsburg, Weimar, c , built in the s and destroyed by fire in The two pages of "In dulci jubilo" in the autograph manuscript. Williams , pp. Wolff Stinson , pp. Boyd , pp. The Organ Music of J. Retrieved 21 August Stinson , p. Compositions for organ , keyboard and lute by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach Twelve Little Preludes. Retrieved from " https: Chorale preludes by Johann Sebastian Bach Compositions for organ.

Weimar acquired woad trade privileges in , the castle and the walls were finished in the 16th century, making Weimar into a full city 3. Bach was dissatisfied with the standard of singers in the choir and he called one of them a Zippel Fagottist 4. The railway station has two entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways 5. Schweitzers interpretative approach greatly influenced the understanding of Bachs music 6.

The dulcitone uses soft hammers which damp the forks, compared to the hammers of the glockenspiel 7. Much living space in Hamburg was bombed out and people flee to the suburbs and exurbs such as Buxtehude, in Buxtehude is decided to be in charge of reconstructing much of Hamburg after the war and thus is heavily funded with government money 8.

Chamber music constitutes a part of the surviving output, although the only chamber works Buxtehude published during his lifetime were fourteen chamber sonatas 9. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Lockes works and developed his original theology known as the new divinity YouTube Videos [show more]. View of the South wing, the tower, and the oldest part Bastille on the left. The Kasseturm is a relic of the former city wall at Goetheplatz. Market Square with some 16th-century Renaissance patricians' houses.

Johann Sebastian Bach 31 March [O. St Michael's pictured in lower right. The Wender organ Bach played in Arnstadt. New City Hall of Leipzig, built in Augustusplatz with Leipzig Opera House, around A Glockenspiel German pronunciation: A Mardi Gras musician playing a glockenspiel. The only surviving portrait of Buxtehude, playing a viol , from A musical party by Johannes Voorhout This is Buxtehude House. The spire of St. Olaf's is in the background. Coat of arms of the family of Elihu Yale, after whom the University was named in First diploma awarded by Yale College , granted to Nathaniel Chauncey, The interval of a fifth inverts to a fourth dissonant and therefore cannot be employed in invertible counterpoint, without preparation and resolution.

Example of a false answer in J. The false entry occurs in the alto, and consists of the head of the subject only, marked in red. It anticipates the true entry of the subject, marked in blue, by one quarter-note. In Protestant usage, a consistory designates certain ruling bodies in various churches. APU 's Berlin Consistory sat in the Collegienhaus between and , sharing it with the Kammergericht , and again from to as the sole user.

The Dokkum Consistoriekamer consistorial chamber , venue of the Reformed local church elders. MIDI allows multiple instruments to be played from a single controller often a keyboard, as pictured here , which makes stage setups much more portable. This system fits into a single rack case, but prior to the advent of MIDI, it would have required four separate full-size keyboard instruments, plus outboard mixing and effects unit s.

Two-octave MIDI controllers are popular for use with laptop computers, due to their portability. This unit provides a variety of real-time controllers, which can manipulate various sound design parameters of computer-based or standalone hardware instruments, effects, mixers and recording devices. The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. A white coloured parament hangs from the pulpit , indicating that the current liturgical season is Christmastide.

The fact that the Christ Candle in the centre of the Advent wreath is lit also indicates that Christmas has arrived. The liturgical year of some western churches other than the Catholic Church, indicating the liturgical colours. A further step towards perfecting this form was taken by Bach when he made the contrapuntal elements in his music a means of reflecting certain emotional aspects of the words. Pachelbel had not attempted this; he lacked the fervid feeling which would have enabled him thus to enter into his subject. And it is entering into it, and not a mere depicting of it. For, once more be it said, in every vital movement of the world external to us we behold the image of a movement within us; and every such image must react upon us to produce the corresponding emotion in that inner world of feeling.

Here Bach has realised the ideal of the chorale prelude. Whatever you wish to say about it, you have first to concede that Bernstein's music communicates directly, wholly, dynami- cally, and that it is all a piece, all a product of the same energetic mind and personality. And His Name Shall Be Called Joseph, a "musical celebration for chorus, solo voices, and orchestra," deals with the call of the latter-day Prophet Joseph Smith, and the ancient prophecies predicting that call.

The text is an adapta- tion from both ancient and modern scripture by a fellow BYU student, Mark Davis, and begins with the promise of the patriarch Jacob to his son Joseph. It continues with several prophetic predictions of the latter days, including Lehi's account of Joseph of Egypt's foretelling of his descendant who would do the work of the Lord in the latter days, and whose name should be called Joseph.

The focus progresses to the latter days, and a boy soprano portrays the innocent search for wisdom by the boy Joseph Smith, and his inspiration from the promise of James: The work continues with the now adult Prophet's affirmation of the veracity of his mission, and his testimony of the Savior Jesus Christ. The repetition of the theme, "if any of you lack wisdom.

The work concludes with Joseph's farewell to his people and his final exhortation to "search this Jesus of whom the apostles and prophets have written, that the grace of God. Zabriskie combines the various elements of Joseph into one large movement, encompassing smaller, contrasting sections. The composer skillfully employs five thematic ideas to unite the musical expression with the highly significant scriptural text, creating a meaningful and satisfying whole. David Zabriskie is a senior in music composition from Bountiful, Utah.

A musician for as long as his parents can remember, he started writing music at the age of twelve and wrote a musical for a ward MIA performance. Since returning from his mission, he has given two recitals of his own compositions and has written one other oratorio for choir and orchestra entitled Israel. He was awarded first place in the New Era music composition contest in and the Vera Mayhew Composition Contest in As a member of the BYU A Cappella Choir, he contributed several songs and arrangements for the choir to perform on tour as well as in local concerts. After graduating in December, Mr.

Zabriskie will begin his graduate musical studies. He and his wife, Kimberly, are both members of the Oratorio Choir. Darin Gates or Richard Elmore Soprano: Brian Roberts or Brad Koch Bass: I will rouse the dawn! And into His courts with praise. Come before His presence with Be thankful unto Him, and bless singing. Know ye that the Lord, He is God. For the Lord is good, His mercy It is He that hath made us, and is everlasting, not we ourselves.

And His truth endureth to all We are His people and the sheep generations. He maketh me to lie down in green pastures, He leadeth me beside the still waters, He restoreth my soul, He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness, For His name's sake. Yea, though I walk Through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, For Thou art with me. Thy rod and Thy staff They comfort me. Thou preparest a table before me In the presence of mine enemies, Thou anointest my head with oil, My cup runneth over.

Surely goodness and mercy Shall follow me all the days of my life, And I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever. The kings of the earth set themselves, And the rulers take counsel together Against the Lord and against His anointed. Saying, let us break their bands asunder, And cast away their cords from us. He that sitteth in the heavens Shall laugh, and the Lord Shall have them in derision! Surely I have calmed And quieted myself, As a child that is weaned of his mother, My soul is even as a weaned child.

Let Israel hope in the Lord From henceforth and forever. Zabriskie Soloists Tenor: Richard Elmore or Darin Gates Bass: Joseph Cherrington or Christopher Schuman Baritone: Martin Wright or Clayne Robison Chorus: Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well whose branches run over the wall. The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him and hated him.

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But his bow abode in strength, and his arms were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob. The blessings of my father have prevailed above the blessings of thy fathers: They shall be on the head of Joseph. And the kingdom shall not be left to other people, and it shall abide forever. Great were the covenants of the Lord which he made unto Joseph. For Joseph truly saw our day. And he obtained a promise of the Lord, that out of the fruit of his loins God should raise up a choice seer. And out of weakness he shall be made strong in that day when my work shall commence among my people.

And I will make him great in mine eyes, for he shall do my work. And his name shall be called Joseph. Who of all these parties is right? Or are and Chorus: Which of them is right, and how shall I know it? But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea, driven by the wind and tossed. The keys of the kingdom of God are committed unto man on the earth, and from thence shall the gospel roll forth unto the ends of the earth, as the stone which is cut out of the mountain without hands shall roll forth until it has filled the whole earth.

I sent forth my gospel by the hand of my servant, Joseph, and in weakness, have I blessed him. The record which we bear is the fulness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, who is the Son, whom we saw and with whom we conversed in heavenly vision. I had actually seen a light, and in the midst of that light I saw two Personages, and they did in reality speak to me; and though I was hated and persecuted for saying that I had seen a vision, yet it was true. And now, after the many testimonies which have been given of him, this is the testimony, last of all, which we give of him: Why persecute me for telling the truth?

I have actually seen a vision, and who am I that I can withstand God, or why does the world think to make me deny what I have actually seen? Joseph lived great and he died great in the eyes of the Lord, and of his people; and like most of the Lord's anointed in ancient times he has sealed his mission with his blood. And then ye shall know that I have seen Jesus and that he talked with me face to face. And now, I would commend you to seek this Jesus of whom the prophets and apostles have written, that the grace of God the Father and of the Lord Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Ghost which beareth record of them, may be and abide in you forever, Amen.

Lorimer Darren Major David W. Blaisdell Norman Christensen J. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him Was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, And the life was the light of man. And the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehendeth it not. Jhesu at Thy will I pray that I may be.

All my heart fulfill with perfect love to Thee. That I have done ill, Jhesu forgive thou me, And suffer me never to spill; be lost Jhesu for pity, Amen. And the echo from the fields Repeats this melodious song. Glory to God in the highest. Shepherds, why this festival?

Who is the object of all these songs? What conqueror, what conquest merits these triumphant cries? Glory to God in the highest! Shepherds, far from your homes Unite with their harmony And with your delicate instruments Retain those melodies-. Let us all seek this happy nest Beneath whose roof the Master is seen There let us offer tender homage And our hearts and voices I Glory to God in the Highest!

These Hanukkah lights are holy and through them we sanctify Thy name. Lord, have mercy upon us. High from the tow'ring craggy cliff pours the sparkling stream, Then spraying softly, it falls in mist To the glistening stones, Enveiling all in a wavy motion, And murmuring, rushes downward, Jutting rocks now oppose the torrent, Angrily seething and plunging down to the deepness. Then calmly flowing, slips to the valley so green, And in the glassy lake stars see their faces quietly shining. Wind is the wave's own tender lover; Wind makes the swirling, rich foaming billows, O soul of man, you are so like the water; O fate of man, you are so like the wind.

Brett Moises Denis Michael J. Fa Tom Grover E. Zabriskie, director Warren B. Prophecies concerning the restoration are traced back as far as Adam and foretell many things already accomplished and much yet to come. These prophecies mark the restoration of the gospel as the beginning of the final chapter in God's dealings with man on earth. Major events in history have often inspired composers to write oratorios: Such works give opportunity to contemplate great events through the union of text and music on a grand scale. In commenting on The Restoration, contem- porary composer Brent Heisinger said, the work "does what an oratorio ought to do — draws people together spiritually through music.

Lee, who graciously accepted the dedication before his unexpected death. The work was the result of a lifelong ambition on the part of the composer to create a major composition about the restoration of the gospel and the composer's love for that gospel. The final impetus was a request by Dr. Halliday, original conductor of the Oratorio Choir, for an original oratorio. A sabbatical leave provided the composer time to work intensively on the subject.

Don't be alarmed — you are not late. Just join in singing the hymns words are in the program until everyone is seated and all the performers are in place. From time to time, as the program indicates, the conductor will turn to the audience and invite you to sing with the choirs and orchestra. At the end of the last movement, a new melody is given in the program. Please sing along on this melody, too — in your own range and at the top of your voice.

The conductor will give the signal and the brasses will play along with you. Participation will help you "get in the spirit" and gain a richer enjoyment from the performance. We know he is coming To gather his sheep And lead them to Zion in Love; For why in the valley Of death should they weep Or in the lone wilderness rove? How long we have wandered As strangers in sin, And cried in the desert for thee!

Our foes have rejoiced When our sorrows they've seen But Israel will shortly be free. As children of Zion, Good tidings for us. The tokens already appear. Fear not, and be just, For the kingdom is ours. The hour of redemption is near. Oh say, what is truth? Yes, say, what is truth? The sceptre may fall from the despot's grasp When with winds of stem justice he copes, But the pillar of truth will endure to the last, And its firm-rooted bulwarks outstand the rude blast, And the wreck of the fell tyrant's hopes.

Then say, what is truth? Though the heavens depart and the earth's fountains burst, Truth, the sum of existence, will weather the worst, Eternal, unchanged, evermore. Sweet is the day of sacred rest. No mortal care shall seize my breast. O may my heart in tune be found Like David's harp of solemn sound! My heart shall triumph in my Lord And bless his works and bless his word. Thy works of grace, how bright they shine! How deep thy counsels, how divine!

But, oh, what triumph shall I raise To thy dear name through endless days, When in the realms of joy I see Thy face in full felicity. We've waited long for thee, With healing in thy wings To set thy people free; Come, thou desire of nations, come; Let Israel now be gathered home. Come, make an end to sin And cleanse the earth by fire, And righteousness bring in, That Saints may tune the lyre With songs of joy, a happier strain To welcome in thy peaceful reign.

We thank thee for sending the gospel To lighten our minds with its rays. We thank thee for every blessing Bestowed by thy bounteous hand.

We feel it a pleasure to serve thee, And love to obey thy command. When dark clouds of trouble hang o'er us And threaten our peace to destroy, There is hope smiling brightly before us, And we know that deliverance is nigh. We doublt not the Lord nor his goodness. We've proved him in days that are past. The wicked who fight against Zion Will surely be smitten at last. We'll sing of his goodness and mercy. We'll praise him by day and by night, Rejoice in his glorious gospel, And bask in its life-giving light.

Thus on to eternal perfection The honest and faithful will go, While they who reject this glad message Shall never such happiness know. The dawning of a brighter day, The dawning of a brighter day Majestic rises on the world. Verse II - Angelic Choir The clouds of error disappear Before the rays of truth divine; The glory bursting from afar, The glory bursting from afar Wide o'er the nations soon will shine. We sing of his goodness to us And the restoration of his kingdom In these the latter days.

Blessed be his name! We will sing of the prophecies from the scriptures. We will sing of the precious thoughts of our hearts. Of the Prophet and his calling to lead the dispensation of the fulness of times, Hosanna to God! We will sing of his kingdom here on earth, And most of all, We will sing praises to his great name. Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets. And the vision of all is become unto you as the words of a book that is sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, saying, Read this, I pray Thee: And the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honor me, but have re- moved their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men: And in that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of obscurity, and out of dark- ness.

The meek also shall increase their joy in the Lord, and the poor among men shall rejoice in the Holy One of Israel. Unseal my heart that I may lift it unto thee. Unlock my spirit that it may seek thee. Heal thou my deafened ears. Touch thou my blinded eyes. Increase my joy in thee That I may rejoice in thee. And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: Her light should there attract the gaze Of all the world in latter days.

Audience joins in at the conductor's signal. His house shall there be reared His glory to display; And people shall be heard In distant lands to say, We'll now go up and serve the Lord, Obey his truths and learn his word. Yea the Lord said unto Joseph of Old: A seer will I raise up out of the fruit of thy loins; and unto him will I give power to bring forth my word unto the seed of thy loins. Yea, thus prophesieth Joseph: Behold, that seer will the Lord bless; and they that seek to destroy him shall be confounded; for this promise.

And his name shall be called after me; and it shall be after the name of his father. And he shall be like unto me; for the thing, which the Lord shall bring forth by his hand, by the power of the Lord shall bring my people unto salvation. Blessed is the man who serveth thee with all his heart. Blessed am I when I may serve thee.

And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: What I the Lord have spoken, I have spoken, and I excuse not my- self;. Heaven and Earth [shall] pass away, [but] my word shall not pass away. Yet called of God to lead this dispensation He felt the anger of the wicked one, But called of God to usher in the fullness of time Received the visitation: The Father and The Son.

I like to think all nature stilled and listened When Joseph prayed. Radiant beamed the sun above. Bees were humming, sweet birds singing, Music ringing through the grove, When within the shady woodland Joseph sought the God of love; When within the shady woodland, Joseph sought the God of love.

Works by Composer BACH, JOHANN SEBASTIAN

Humbly kneeling, sweet appealing — 'Twas the boy's first uttered prayer — When the powers of sin assailing Filled his soul with deep despair; But undaunted still, he trusted In his heavenly Father's care; But undaunted still, he trusted In his heavenly Father's care. Suddenly a light descended, Brighter far than noonday sun, And a shining glorious pillar O'er him fell, around him shone, While appeared two heavenly beings, God the Father and the Son; While appeared two heavenly beings, God the Father and the Son.

Joseph's humble prayer was answered, And he listened to the Lord. Oh, what rapture filled his bosom, For he saw the living God; Oh what rapture filled his bosom, For he saw the living God. And I have sent forth the fulness of my gospel by the hand of my servant Joseph; and in weakness have I blessed him; and I have given unto him the keys of the mystery of those things. For behold saith the Lord: I will be with him, and I will sanctify him before the people; for unto him have I given the keys of this kingdom and ministry.

Yet unto us Thou hast brought salvation. Brother Joseph, Brother Joseph, with our hearts we thank you. I am going like a lamb to the slaughter; but I am calm as a summer's morning; I have a conscience void of offense towards God, and towards all men. I shall die innocent, and it shall yet be said of me: He was murdered in cold blood. May it turn away the wrath of thine enemy, For thou hast struggled with the power of darkness And hast wrestled on the lawn with thy friends.

For thou hast spoken with the Father and the Son And chatted with the poor, the weak, the lost. In bonds — yet not robbed of majesty, In prisons — yet inspiring with thy word. Oh Joseph, bridge between the glories of heaven And the common things of earth, God rest thee well, God rest thee well. And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under. Ye nations now look up, it waves to all the world. But in the last days it [has] come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the Lord [is] established in the top of the mountains, and it [is] exalted above the hills; and people.

And he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke [many] nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: For all people will walk every one in the name of his god, and we will walk in the name of the Lord our God for ever and ever. For the strength of the hills we bless thee, Our God, our fathers' God. Thou hast led us here in safety Where the mountain bulwark stands As the guardian of the loved ones Thou hast brought from many lands.

For the rock and for the river, the valley's fertile sod, For the strength of the hills we bless thee, Our God, our fathers' God. Behold, the days [are] come,. I [have] put my law in their inward parts, and [have written] it in their hearts. And thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, Saying, This is the way, walk ye in it,. Turn to the right hand. Turn ye to the left. And the ransomed of the Lord [do] return, and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads.

The spirit [is] poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness [is] a fruitful field, And the fruitful [field is] counted for a forest. Judgment shall dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness remain in the fruitful field. And the work of righteousness shall be peace; And the effect of righteousness, quietness and assurance for ever. And my people shall dwell in a peaceful habitation, and in sure dwellings, and in quiet resting places. Great and marvelous are thy works Lord God Almighty; just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name?

For thou only art holy: Salvation, and glory, and honor, and power, Music on next page unto the Lord our God: Walker, Penny Williams, Mary C.

J.S. Bach Organ works played by Bram Beekman, Volume 2