In Sartor Resartus, the narrator moves from the "Everlasting No" to the "Everlasting Yea," but only through "The Centre of Indifference," a position of agnosticism and detachment. Only after reducing desires and certainty, aiming at a Buddha -like "indifference", can the narrator realise affirmation. Based on Goethe's having described Christianity as the "Worship of Sorrow", and "our highest religion, for the Son of Man", Carlyle adds, interpreting this, "there is no noble crown, well worn or even ill worn, but is a crown of thorns".
The "Worship of Silence" is Carlyle's name for the sacred respect for restraint in speech till "thought has silently matured itself, … to hold one's tongue till some meaning lie behind to set it wagging," a doctrine which many misunderstand, almost wilfully, it would seem; silence being to him the very womb out of which all great things are born.
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In , Carlyle moved to London from Craigenputtock and began to move among celebrated company. A History in The resulting work had a passion new to historical writing.
In a politically charged Europe, filled with fears and hopes of revolution, Carlyle's account of the motivations and urges that inspired the events in France seemed powerfully relevant. Carlyle's style of historical writing stressed the immediacy of action — often using the present tense — and incorporating many different perspectives on the changing events.
For Carlyle, chaotic events demanded what he called 'heroes' to take control over the competing forces erupting within society. While not denying the importance of economic and practical explanations for events, he saw these forces as 'spiritual' — the hopes and aspirations of people that took the form of ideas, and were often ossified into ideologies "formulas" or " isms ", as he called them. In Carlyle's view, only dynamic individuals could master events and direct these spiritual energies effectively: Like the opinions of many deep thinkers of the time, these ideas were influential on the development and rise of both Socialism and Fascism.
The book was based on a course of lectures he had given. The French Revolution had brought Carlyle fame, but little money. His friends worked to set him on his feet by organising courses of public lectures for him, drumming up an audience and selling guinea tickets. Carlyle did not like lecturing, but found that he could do it, and more importantly that it brought in some much-needed money. Between and , Carlyle delivered four such courses of lectures. The final course was on "Heroes. Carlyle was one of the very few philosophers who witnessed the industrial revolution but still kept a non-materialistic view of the world.
The book included lectures discussing people ranging from the field of religion through to literature and politics. The figures chosen for each lecture were presented by Carlyle as archetypal examples of individuals who, in their respective fields of endeavor, had dramatically impacted history in some way, for good or ill, and included such figures as Dante poet , Luther priest , and Napoleon king.
In his work, Carlyle outlined Muhammad as a Hegelian agent of reform, insisting on his sincerity and commenting "how one man single-handedly, could weld warring tribes and wandering Bedouins into a most powerful and civilised nation in less than two decades. Carlyle held "That great men should rule and that others should revere them," a view that for him was supported by a complex faith in history and evolutionary progress. Societies, like organisms, evolve throughout history, thrive for a time, but inevitably become weak and die out, giving place to a stronger, superior breed.
Heroes are those who affirm this life process, accepting its cruelty as necessary and thus good. For them courage is a more valuable virtue than love; heroes are noblemen, not saints. The hero functions first as a pattern for others to imitate, and second as a creator, moving history forwards not backwards history being the biography of great men. Carlyle was among the first of his age to recognize that the death of God is in itself nothing to be happy about, unless man steps in and creates new values to replace the old.
For Carlyle the hero should become the object of worship, the center of a new religion proclaiming humanity as "the miracle of miracles The Heroic Vitalists feared that the recent trends toward democracy would hand over power to the ill-bred, uneducated, and immoral, whereas their belief in a transcendent force in nature directing itself onward and upward gave some hope that this overarching force would overrule in favor of the strong, intelligent, and noble.
Nietzsche agreed with much of Carlyle's hero worship, transferring many qualities of the hero to his concept of the superman. He believed that the hero should be revered, not for the good he has done for the people, but simply out of admiration for the marvelous. The hero justifies himself as a man chosen by destiny to be great. In the life struggle he is a conqueror, growing stronger through conflict.
The hero is not ashamed of his strength; instead of the Christian virtues of meekness, humility and compassion, he abides by the beatitudes of Heroic Vitalism: For Carlyle, the hero was somewhat similar to Aristotle 's "Magnanimous" man — a person who flourished in the fullest sense.
However, for Carlyle, unlike Aristotle, the world was filled with contradictions with which the hero had to deal. All heroes will be flawed. Their heroism lay in their creative energy in the face of these difficulties, not in their moral perfection. To sneer at such a person for their failings is the philosophy of those who seek comfort in the conventional.
Carlyle called this 'valetism', from the expression 'no man is a hero to his valet. In , he published his anti-democratic Past and Present , with its doctrine of ordered work. England is full of wealth All these books were influential in their day, especially on writers such as Charles Dickens and John Ruskin. However, after the Revolutions of and political agitations in the United Kingdom, Carlyle published a collection of essays entitled " Latter-Day Pamphlets " in which he attacked democracy as an absurd social ideal, while equally condemning hereditary aristocratic leadership.
Two of these essays, No. Government should come from those most able to lead. But how such leaders were to be found, and how to follow their lead, was something Carlyle could not or would not clearly say. Marx and Engels agreed with Carlyle as far as his criticism of the hereditary aristocracy. However they criticised Carlyle's plan to use democracy to find the "Noblest" and the other "Nobles" that are to form the government by the "ablest" persons.
He has one idea — a hatred of spoken and acted falsehood; and on this he harps through the whole eight pamphlets". In later writings, Carlyle sought to examine instances of heroic leadership in history. Carlyle sought to make Cromwell's words live in their own terms by quoting him directly, and then commenting on the significance of these words in the troubled context of the time.
Again this was intended to make the 'past' 'present' to his readers: His essay " Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question " suggested that slavery should never have been abolished, or else replaced with serfdom. As Governor of the Colony, Eyre, fearful of an island wide uprising, brutally suppressed the rebellion, and had many black peasants killed. He also authorised the execution of George William Gordon , a mixed-race colonial assemblyman who was suspected of involvement in the rebellion. These events created great controversy in Britain, resulting in demands for Eyre to be arrested and tried for murdering Gordon.
Carlyle set up rival Governor Eyre Defense and Aid Committee for the defence, arguing that Eyre had acted decisively to restore order. Twice Eyre was charged with murder, but the cases never proceeded. Similar hard-line views were expressed in Shooting Niagara, and After? His last major work was the epic life of Frederick the Great — In this Carlyle tried to show how a heroic leader can forge a state, and help create a new moral culture for a nation.
For Carlyle, Frederick epitomised the transition from the liberal Enlightenment ideals of the eighteenth century to a new modern culture of spiritual dynamism embodied by Germany, its thought and its polity. The book is most famous for its vivid, arguably very biased, portrayal of Frederick's battles, in which Carlyle communicated his vision of almost overwhelming chaos mastered by leadership of genius. Carlyle struggled to write the book, calling it his "Thirteen Years War" with Frederick. Some of the nicknames he came up with for the work included, "the Nightmare," "the Minotaur," and "the Unutterable book" .
In , he made his first trip to Germany to gather material, visiting the scenes of Frederick's battles and noting their topography. He made another trip to Germany to study battlefields in The work comprised six volumes; the first two volumes appeared in , the third in , the fourth in and the last two in Emerson considered it "Infinitely the wittiest book that was ever written". James Russell Lowell pointed out some faults, but wrote: The effort involved in the writing of the book took its toll on Carlyle, who became increasingly depressed, and subject to various probably psychosomatic ailments.
In he wrote a letter to his sister describing the construction of a small penthouse room over his home in Chelsea , intended as a soundproof writer's room. Unfortunately, the skylight made it "the noisiest room in the house" .
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The mixed reception to the book also contributed to Carlyle's decreased literary output. Later writings were generally short essays, notably the unsuccessful The Early Kings of Norway ,  a series on early-medieval Norwegian warlords. I have the strength of ten or more men. I can crush human bones with one hand. My hearing is so intensified I can hear your heart beating, even now.
When I choose, I can read your mind as easily as I know my own thoughts. I can use telekinesis to open doors and layers of locks. What was he getting at? That night Derek shot me. A flush warmed her skin. She tried to jerk her hands away. Over seven hundred years? If it regenerates in an inhuman way, your body can even avoid disease. Your age could surpass human age. Why was he sidestepping? Drawing out his explanation? No more beating around the bush. What are you that you can live seven hundred years?
His face grew stern, his hands gripping hers tighter. While she absorbed his words, she could only stare. Her heart thudded in her ears. Her skin tingled to her toes. Did he think she was an idiot? Or was he the idiot? He must have made up this outrageous story to tell her because of her fascination with supernatural beings.
Eternity's Scottish Hero
Her lips thinned with aggravation. And I suppose you sleep in a coffin, and turn into a bat. Would she want him to perform tricks to convince her? Have you made me out to be a Superman who can jump over tall buildings with a single bound? I can fly you around, but I am not a romantic character out of a comic book, Brenna. I am what humans call a blood-sucking vampire. Her face paled and she jerked her hands away from his. His words had been too strong. His explanation was poor. You needed to know before you devote any more of your life to me. How else would I know so much about vampires?
I live it, day after day, year after year, century after Her beautiful face contorted into fear. Your disgust is blatant. Blood is a natural taste, immediate with transformation. Sharon Krossa noted that the film contains numerous historical errors, beginning with the wearing of belted plaid by Wallace and his men.
In that period "no Scots She compares the inaccuracy to "a film about Colonial America showing the colonial men wearing 20th century business suits, but with the jackets worn back-to-front instead of the right way around. In , the film was second on a list of "most historically inaccurate movies" in The Times. In the DVD audio commentary of Braveheart , Mel Gibson acknowledges many of the historical inaccuracies but defends his choices as director, noting that the way events were portrayed in the film was much more "cinematically compelling" than the historical fact or conventional mythos.
Edward Longshanks , King of England, is shown invoking Jus primae noctis , allowing the Lord of a medieval estate to take the virginity of his serfs' maiden daughters on their wedding nights. Critical medieval scholarship regards this supposed right as a myth, "the simple reason why we are dealing with a myth here rests in the surprising fact that practically all writers who make any such claims have never been able or willing to cite any trustworthy source, if they have any.
As John Shelton Lawrence and Robert Jewett write, "Because [William] Wallace is one of Scotland's most important national heroes and because he lived in the very distant past, much that is believed about him is probably the stuff of legend. But there is a factual strand that historians agree to", summarized from Scots scholar Matt Ewart:.
Wallace was born into the gentry of Scotland; his father lived until he was 18, his mother until his 24th year; he killed the sheriff of Lanark when he was 27, apparently after the murder of his wife; he led a group of commoners against the English in a very successful battle at Stirling in , temporarily receiving appointment as guardian ; Wallace's reputation as a military leader was ruined in the same year of , leading to his resignation as guardian; he spent several years of exile in France before being captured by the English at Glasgow , this resulting in his trial for treason and his cruel execution.
Christa Canitz writes about the historical William Wallace further: She finds that in Braveheart , "any hint of his descent from the lowland gentry i. Colin McArthur writes that Braveheart "constructs Wallace as a kind of modern, nationalist guerrilla leader in a period half a millennium before the appearance of nationalism on the historical stage as a concept under which disparate classes and interests might be mobilised within a nation state. Isabella of France is shown having an affair with Wallace after the Battle of Falkirk.
Robert the Bruce did change sides between the Scots loyalists and the English more than once in the earlier stages of the Wars of Scottish Independence , but he never betrayed Wallace directly, and he probably did not fight on the English side at the Battle of Falkirk although this claim does appear in a few medieval sources. His title before becoming king was Earl of Carrick , not Earl of Bruce. The actual Edward I was ruthless and temperamental, but the film exaggerates his negative aspects for effect. Edward enjoyed poetry and harp music, was a devoted and loving husband to his wife Eleanor of Castile , and as a religious man he gave generously to charity.
The film's scene where he scoffs cynically at Isabella for distributing gold to the poor after Wallace refuses it as a bribe would have been unlikely. Also, Edward died on campaign two years after Wallace's execution, not in bed at his home. The depiction of the future Edward II as an effeminate homosexual drew accusations of homophobia against Gibson.
We cut a scene out, unfortunately. But it just stopped the film in the first act so much that you thought, 'When's this story going to start? The actual Edward II, who fathered five children by two different women, was rumoured to have had sexual affairs with men, including Piers Gaveston , on whom the Prince's male lover Phillip was loosely based. I'm just trying to respond to history. You can cite other examples — Alexander the Great , for example, who conquered the entire world, was also a homosexual.
But this story isn't about Alexander the Great. It's about Edward II. In response to Longshanks's murder of the Prince's male lover Phillip, Gibson replied: He's terrible to his son, to everybody. Wallace did win an important victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridge , but the version in Braveheart is highly inaccurate, as it was filmed without a bridge and without Andrew Moray , joint commander of the Scots army, who was fatally injured in the battle.
Later, Wallace did carry out a large-scale raid into the north of England, but he did not get as far south as York, nor did he kill Longshanks' nephew. Albans , and only refraining from attacking London after the English queen came out to meet him. The "Irish conscripts" at the Battle of Falkirk are also unhistorical; there were no Irish troops at Falkirk although many of the English army were actually Welsh , and it is anachronistic to refer to conscripts in the Middle Ages although there were feudal levies. The two-handed long swords used by Gibson in the film were not in wide use in the period.
A one-handed sword and shield would be more accurate. Sections of the English media accused the film of harbouring Anglophobia.
Eternity's Scottish hero - $ - Jayme Evans -
The Economist called it " xenophobic ",  and John Sutherland writing in The Guardian stated that: In The Times , MacArthur said "the political effects are truly pernicious. Braveheart was released on DVD on August 29, On February 9, , a sequel titled Robert the Bruce was announced. The film will lead directly on from Braveheart and follow the widow Moira, portrayed by Anna Hutchison , and her family portrayed by Gabriel Bateman and Talitha Bateman , who save Robert the Bruce , with Angus Macfadyen reprising his role from Braveheart.
Richard Gray will direct the film, with Macfadyen and Eric Belgau writing the script. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Braveheart disambiguation. North American theatrical release poster. Mel Gibson Alan Ladd, Jr. Icon Productions The Ladd Company. Retrieved March 28, Retrieved February 7, Retrieved April 18, Archived from the original on Retrieved 15 November Retrieved April 30, Los Angeles, California , United States: