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Neruda is often considered the national poet of Chile, and his works have been popular and influential worldwide. Soon after her death, Reyes moved to Temuco , where he married a woman with whom he had had another child nine years earlier, a boy named Rodolfo. He composed his first poems in the winter of From "Poetry", Memorial de Isla Negra Neruda's father opposed his son's interest in writing and literature, but he received encouragement from others, including the future Nobel Prize winner Gabriela Mistral , who headed the local school.

By mid, when he adopted the pseudonym Pablo Neruda, he was a published author of poems, prose, and journalism. He is thought to have derived his pen name from the Czech poet Jan Neruda. In , at the age of 16, Neruda moved to Santiago [10] to study French at the Universidad de Chile , with the intention of becoming a teacher. However, he was soon devoting all his time to writing poems and with the help of well-known writer Eduardo Barrios , [13] he managed to meet and impress Don Carlos George Nascimento, the most important publisher in Chile at the time.

Both works were critically acclaimed and have been translated into many languages. Over the decades, Veinte poemas sold millions of copies and became Neruda's best-known work, though a second edition did not appear until Almost one hundred years later, Veinte Poemas still retains its place as the best-selling poetry book in the Spanish language. Rangoon was a place he had never heard of before.

While he was in the diplomatic service, Neruda read large amounts of verse, experimented with many different poetic forms, and wrote the first two volumes of Residencia en la Tierra , which includes many surrealist poems. As Spain became engulfed in civil war , Neruda became intensely politicised for the first time.

His experiences during the Spanish Civil War and its aftermath moved him away from privately focused work in the direction of collective obligation. Neruda became an ardent Communist for the rest of his life. He lost his post as consul due to his political militancy. Neruda's marriage to Vogelzang broke down and the couple divorced in His ex-wife moved to Monte Carlo and then to the Netherlands with their only child, and he never saw either of them again.

Following the election of Pedro Aguirre Cerda , whom Neruda supported, as President of Chile in , Neruda was appointed special consul for Spanish emigrants in Paris. There he was responsible for what he called "the noblest mission I have ever undertaken": Neruda's next diplomatic post was as Consul General in Mexico City from to In , after the failure of an assassination attempt against Leon Trotsky , Neruda arranged a Chilean visa for the Mexican painter David Alfaro Siqueiros , who was accused of having been one of the conspirators in the assassination.

This enabled Siqueiros, then jailed, to leave Mexico for Chile, where he stayed in Neruda's private residence. Neruda's relationship with Siqueiros attracted criticism, but Neruda dismissed the allegation that his intent had been to help an assassin as "sensationalist politico-literary harassment". In , after his return to Chile, Neruda made a tour of Peru , where he visited Machu Picchu , [22] an experience that later inspired Alturas de Macchu Picchu , a book-length poem in twelve parts that he completed in and which expressed his growing awareness of, and interest in, the ancient civilizations of the Americas.

He explored this theme further in Canto General In Alturas , Neruda celebrated the achievement of Machu Picchu, but also condemned the slavery that had made it possible. In Canto XII , he called upon the dead of many centuries to be born again and to speak through him.

Bolstered by his experiences in the Spanish Civil War, Neruda, like many left-leaning intellectuals of his generation, came to admire the Soviet Union of Joseph Stalin , partly for the role it played in defeating Nazi Germany and partly because of an idealist interpretation of Marxist doctrine.

In , Neruda was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize. Upon Stalin's death that same year, Neruda wrote an ode to him, as he also wrote poems in praise of Fulgencio Batista , "Saludo a Batista" "Salute to Batista" , and later to Fidel Castro. His fervent Stalinism eventually drove a wedge between Neruda and his long-time friend Octavio Paz , who commented that "Neruda became more and more Stalinist, while I became less and less enchanted with Stalin.


Although Paz still considered Neruda "The greatest poet of his generation", in an essay on Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn he wrote that when he thinks of "Neruda and other famous Stalinist writers and poets, I feel the gooseflesh that I get from reading certain passages of the Inferno.

No doubt they began in good faith [ Neruda also called Vladimir Lenin the "great genius of this century", and in a speech he gave on June 5, , he paid tribute to the late Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin , who for Neruda was "man of noble life", "the great constructor of the future", and "a comrade in arms of Lenin and Stalin". Neruda later came to rue his seduction by the personality cult, explaining that "in those days, Stalin seemed to us the conqueror who had crushed Hitler 's armies.

Anxious not to give ammunition to his ideological enemies, he would later refuse publicly to condemn the Soviet repression of dissident writers like Boris Pasternak and Joseph Brodsky , an attitude with which even some of his staunchest admirers disagreed.

The breaking point for Senator Neruda was the violent repression of a Communist-led miners' strike in Lota in October , when striking workers were herded into island military prisons and a concentration camp in the town of Pisagua. Borges stated, "I think of him as a very fine poet, a very fine poet. I don't admire him as a man, I think of him as a very mean man. So I felt he was behaving very wisely in avoiding a meeting that would have been quite uncomfortable for both of us. A few weeks later in , finding himself threatened with arrest, Neruda went into hiding and he and his wife were smuggled from house to house hidden by supporters and admirers for the next thirteen months.

Neruda later moved to Valdivia , in southern Chile. Neruda's life underground ended in March when he fled over the Lilpela Pass in the Andes Mountains to Argentina on horseback. He would dramatically recount his escape from Chile in his Nobel Prize lecture. Once out of Chile, he spent the next three years in exile.

Ode to the Confederate Dead by Allen Tate - Poems |

His trip to Mexico in late was lengthened due to a serious bout of phlebitis. What ancient night does a man touch with his senses? Loving is a journey with water and with stars, with smothered air and abrupt storms of flour: While in Mexico, Neruda also published his lengthy epic poem Canto General , a Whitmanesque catalog of the history, geography, and flora and fauna of South America, accompanied by Neruda's observations and experiences. Many of them dealt with his time underground in Chile, which is when he composed much of the poem. In fact, he had carried the manuscript with him during his escape on horseback.

A month later, a different edition of five thousand copies was boldly published in Chile by the outlawed Communist Party based on a manuscript Neruda had left behind.

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In Mexico, he was granted honorary Mexican citizenship. The Chilean Socialist Party was in the process of nominating Salvador Allende as its candidate for the September presidential elections and was keen to have the presence of Neruda, by now Chile's most prominent left-wing literary figure, to support the campaign. Del Carril eventually learned of his affair with Matilde Urrutia and he sent her back to Chile in She convinced the Chilean officials to lift his arrest, allowing Urrutia and Neruda to go to Capri, Italy. Now united with Urrutia, Neruda would, aside from many foreign trips and a stint as Allende's ambassador to France from to , spend the rest of his life in Chile.

Ode to the Confederate Dead

By this time, Neruda enjoyed worldwide fame as a poet, and his books were being translated into virtually all the major languages of the world. But being one of the most prestigious and outspoken left-wing intellectuals alive, he also attracted opposition from ideological opponents. The Congress for Cultural Freedom , an anti-communist organization covertly established and funded by the U.

Central Intelligence Agency , adopted Neruda as one of its primary targets and launched a campaign to undermine his reputation, reviving the old claim that he had been an accomplice in the attack on Leon Trotsky in Mexico City in The affair was particularly painful for Neruda because of his previous outspoken support for the Cuban revolution, and he never visited the island again, even after receiving an invitation in After the death of Che Guevara in Bolivia in , Neruda wrote several articles regretting the loss of a "great hero".

In , Neruda was nominated as a candidate for the Chilean presidency, but ended up giving his support to Salvador Allende , who later won the election and was inaugurated in as the first democratically elected socialist head of state. During his stint in Paris, Neruda helped to renegotiate the external debt of Chile, billions owed to European and American banks, but within months of his arrival in Paris his health began to deteriorate. Viente poemas de amor y una cancion desesperada Anillos Residencia en la tierra Espana en el corazon: Himno a las glorias del pueblo en la guerra Alturas de Macchu-Picchu Canto General Los versos del capitan: Poemas de amor Las uvas y el viento Odas elementales Estravagario Cien sonetos de amor Cantos ceremoniales Plenos poderes Las piedras de Chile Memorial de Isla Negra Las piedras del cielo El mar y las campanas: Poemas La rosa separada El corazon amarillo Jardin de invierno Libro de las preguntas El habitante y su esperanza Discurso pronunciado con ocasion de la entrega del premio Nobel de literatura Confieso que he vivido: Memorias Correspondancia Paginas escogidas de Anatole France Visiones de las hijas de Albion y el viajero mental Romeo y Julieta Cuarenta y cuatro Fulgor y muerte de Joaquin Murieta: Bandido chileno injusticiado en California el 23 julio Poems, Pablo Neruda: A Selection Poems Fully Empowered: It so happens I am sick of being a man.

And it happens that I walk into tailorshops and movie houses dried up, waterproof, like a swan made of felt steering my way in a water of wombs and ashes. The smell of barbershops makes me break into hoarse sobs. The only thing I want is to lie still like stones or wool.

Olivia Gatwood - "Ode to the Women on Long Island"

The only thing I want is to see no more stores, no gardens, no more goods, no spectacles, no elevators. It so happens I am sick of my feet and my nails and my hair and my shadow. Still it would be marvelous to terrify a law clerk with a cut lily, or kill a nun with a blow on the ear. It would be great to go through the streets with a green knife letting out yells until I died of the cold. And it pushes me into certain corners, into some moist houses, into hospitals where the bones fly out the window, into shoeshops that smell like vinegar, and certain streets hideous as cracks in the skin.

There are sulphur-colored birds, and hideous intestines hanging over the doors of houses that I hate, and there are false teeth forgotten in a coffeepot, there are mirrors that ought to have wept from shame and terror, there are umbrellas everywhere, and venoms, and umbilical cords. I stroll along serenely, with my eyes, my shoes, my rage, forgetting everything, I walk by, going through office buildings and orthopedic shops, and courtyards with washing hanging from the line: Used with permission of Robert Bly.

I slipped my feet into them as though into two cases knitted with threads of twilight and goatskin. Leave this field blank. From the Notebook of Ambrose Bierce, by R.