Systemtheorie - Methoden und Anwendungen für ein- und mehrdimensionale Systeme (German Edition)

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Refer to the How-to guide, How to apply Brand Victoria , specifically written for digital. You can either self-assess, or get a vendor to build or check for WCAG 2. We also recommend you test content with the end users, including screen reader users, and have an independent subject matter expert or a specialist company design or test for accessibility. A few agencies do have staff with accessibility skills. Check with your digital or online services support team to see if they can help you.

They also improve the experience for users without disability.

Understanding Conformance | Understanding WCAG

The WCAG guidelines are globally accepted as best practice for web development. Each individual guideline for example, contrast has measurable success criteria. The best resources to help you understand the guidelines is the WCAG guide itself. However, for an excellent introduction to the topic refer to:. Specify in the contract that vendors have to comply with WCAG 2. Check the warranty to see it covers fixing non-compliant work. An effective way to ensure the final site is accessible is to build in the accessibility during the development and technical enhancements.

Vendors need to make the back-end system and front-end, compliant before, during and after development. For you or your team, we strongly recommend working to understand what accessible content is, learn how to create it, and how to self-assess your own work for AA compliance. For practical instructions on optimising accessibility, refer to these Creative Commons online factsheets. They must also have enough contrast, for users with low vision.

Your alternative text alt tags for images needs to be intelligible to text readers, and descriptive enough. Good alternative text helps search engines make better sense of the page. Headings need to be identified that is, as an H1 etc. This helps screen reader compatibility. Captions should not obscure or obstruct relevant information in the video.

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Audio descriptions can be, but do not need to be, captioned since they are descriptions of information that is already presented visually. A change of content is not always a change of context. Changes in content, such as an expanding outline, dynamic menu, or a tab control do not necessarily change the context, unless they also change one of the above e. Opening a new window, moving focus to a different component, going to a new page including anything that would look to a user as if they had moved to a new page or significantly re-arranging the content of a page are examples of changes of context.

In this definition, "can only be reached" means that there is some mechanism, such as a conditional redirect, that prevents a user from "reaching" loading the non-conforming page unless the user had just come from the conforming version. The alternate version does not need to be matched page for page with the original e. If multiple language versions are available, then conforming alternate versions are required for each language offered.


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Alternate versions may be provided to accommodate different technology environments or user groups. Each version should be as conformant as possible. One version would need to be fully conformant in order to meet conformance requirement 1. The conforming alternative version does not need to reside within the scope of conformance, or even on the same Web site, as long as it is as freely available as the non-conforming version.

Alternate versions should not be confused with supplementary content , which support the original page and enhance comprehension. Setting user preferences within the content to produce a conforming version is an acceptable mechanism for reaching another version as long as the method used to set the preferences is accessibility supported. See Understanding Conforming Alternate Versions. L1 is the relative luminance of the lighter of the colors, and.

L2 is the relative luminance of the darker of the colors. Contrast ratios can range from 1 to 21 commonly written 1: Because authors do not have control over user settings as to how text is rendered for example font smoothing or anti-aliasing , the contrast ratio for text can be evaluated with anti-aliasing turned off. For the purpose of Success Criteria 1. If no background color is specified, then white is assumed. Background color is the specified color of content over which the text is to be rendered in normal usage.

It is a failure if no background color is specified when the text color is specified, because the user's default background color is unknown and cannot be evaluated for sufficient contrast. For the same reason, it is a failure if no text color is specified when a background color is specified. When there is a border around the letter, the border can add contrast and would be used in calculating the contrast between the letter and its background.

A narrow border around the letter would be used as the letter. A wide border around the letter that fills in the inner details of the letters acts as a halo and would be considered background. WCAG conformance should be evaluated for color pairs specified in the content that an author would expect to appear adjacent in typical presentation. Authors need not consider unusual presentations, such as color changes made by the user agent, except where caused by authors' code. See general flash and red flash thresholds for information about types of flash that are not allowed.

A red flash is defined as any pair of opposing transitions involving a saturated red. Flashing that is a fine, balanced, pattern such as white noise or an alternating checkerboard pattern with "squares" smaller than 0. For general software or Web content, using a x pixel rectangle anywhere on the displayed screen area when the content is viewed at x pixels will provide a good estimate of a 10 degree visual field for standard screen sizes and viewing distances e.

Higher resolutions displays showing the same rendering of the content yield smaller and safer images so it is lower resolutions that are used to define the thresholds. A flash consists of two opposing transitions. Tools are available that will carry out analysis from video screen capture. However, no tool is necessary to evaluate for this condition if flashing is less than or equal to 3 flashes in any one second. Content automatically passes see 1 and 2 above. See also sign language. In English, "spilling the beans" means "revealing a secret.

In Dutch, " Hij ging met de kippen op stok " literally translates into "He went to roost with the chickens," but it means that he went to bed early. This does not include text that is part of a picture that contains significant other visual content. Content required for conformance is referred to as " normative.

How-to guide: page contents

Information that is required by the Web page but omitted by the user. Information that is provided by the user but that falls outside the required data format or values. A keyboard interface allows users to provide keystroke input to programs even if the native technology does not contain a keyboard. A touchscreen PDA has a keyboard interface built into its operating system as well as a connector for external keyboards.

Applications on the PDA can use the interface to obtain keyboard input either from an external keyboard or from other applications that provide simulated keyboard output, such as handwriting interpreters or speech-to-text applications with "keyboard emulation" functionality. Operation of the application or parts of the application through a keyboard-operated mouse emulator, such as MouseKeys, does not qualify as operation through a keyboard interface because operation of the program is through its pointing device interface, not through its keyboard interface.

A label is presented to all users whereas the name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology. In many but not all cases the name and the label are the same. Fonts with extraordinarily thin strokes or unusual features and characteristics that reduce the familiarity of their letter forms are harder to read, especially at lower contrast levels.

Font size is the size when the content is delivered. It does not include resizing that may be done by a user. The actual size of the character that a user sees is dependent both on the author-defined size and the user's display or user-agent settings. For many mainstream body text fonts, 14 and 18 point is roughly equivalent to 1. When fonts are defined in relative units, the actual point size is calculated by the user agent for display. The point size should be obtained from the user agent, or calculated based on font metrics as the user agent does, when evaluating this success criterion.

Users who have low vision would be responsible for choosing appropriate settings. When using text without specifying the font size, the smallest font size used on major browsers for unspecified text would be a reasonable size to assume for the font. If a level 1 heading is rendered in 14pt bold or higher on major browsers, then it would be reasonable to assume it is large text. Relative scaling can be calculated from the default sizes in a similar fashion. The 18 and 14 point sizes for roman texts are taken from the minimum size for large print 14pt and the larger standard font size 18pt.

For other fonts such as CJK languages, the "equivalent" sizes would be the minimum large print size used for those languages and the next larger standard large print size. A marriage license, a stock trade financial and legal , a will, a loan, adoption, signing up for the army, a contract of any type, etc. A broadcast delay is a short usually automated delay, for example used in order to give the broadcaster time to queue or censor the audio or video feed, but not sufficient to allow significant editing.

If information is completely computer generated, it is not live. The mechanism may be explicitly provided in the content, or may be relied upon to be provided by either the platform or by user agents , including assistive technologies. The mechanism needs to meet all success criteria for the conformance level claimed. A media alternative for text is provided for those who benefit from alternate representations of text. Media alternatives for text may be audio-only, video-only including sign-language video , or audio-video. The name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology, whereas a label is presented to all users.

In many but not all cases, the label and the name are the same. This includes ASCII Art which is a pattern of characters , emoticons, leetspeak which uses character substitution , and images representing text. One may conform in a variety of well-defined ways to this document. Content identified as " informative " or "non-normative" is never required for conformance. Successful use of a series of Web pages on a shopping site requires users to view alternative products, prices and offers, select products, submit an order, provide shipping information and provide payment information.

An account registration page requires successful completion of a Turing test before the registration form can be accessed. Determined in a markup language from elements and attributes that are accessed directly by commonly available assistive technology. Determined from technology-specific data structures in a non-markup language and exposed to assistive technology via an accessibility API that is supported by commonly available assistive technology. In HTML, information that is programmatically determinable from a link in English includes text that is in the same paragraph, list, or table cell as the link or in a table header cell that is associated with the table cell that contains the link.

Since screen readers interpret punctuation, they can also provide the context from the current sentence, when the focus is on a link in that sentence. Text is only purely decorative if the words can be rearranged or substituted without changing their purpose. The cover page of a dictionary has random words in very light text in the background.

A Webcast of a live performance occurs at the same time as the viewing and is not prerecorded. An on-line auction with people bidding occurs at the same time as the viewing. Live humans interacting in a virtual world using avatars is not completely generated by the content and occurs at the same time as the viewing. Almost all systems used today to view Web content assume sRGB encoding.

Unless it is known that another color space will be used to process and display the content, authors should evaluate using sRGB colorspace. If using other color spaces, see Understanding Success Criterion 1. If dithering occurs after delivery, then the source color value is used. For colors that are dithered at the source, the average values of the colors that are dithered should be used average R, average G, and average B.

Tools are available that automatically do the calculations when testing contrast and flash. A MathML version of the relative luminance definition is available. A number that indicates whether an image functions as a hyperlink, command button, or check box. A submit "search" button on one Web page and a "find" button on another Web page may both have a field to enter a term and list topics in the Web site related to the term submitted. In this case, they would have the same functionality but would not be labeled consistently.

Items are considered to be in the same relative order even if other items are inserted or removed from the original order. For example, expanding navigation menus may insert an additional level of detail or a secondary navigation section may be inserted into the reading order. A self-contained portion of written content that deals with one or more related topics or thoughts.

A section may consist of one or more paragraphs and include graphics, tables, lists and sub-sections. Different language versions would be considered different sets of Web pages. True sign languages are independent languages that are unrelated to the spoken language s of the same country or region.

Examples include a performance of a flute solo, works of visual art etc. The way the parts of a Web page are organized in relation to each other; and.

What Does This Have to Do With You?

The way a collection of Web pages is organized. An audio version of a Web page. An illustration of a complex process. A paragraph summarizing the major outcomes and recommendations made in a research study. As used in these guidelines "Web Technology" and the word "technology" when used alone both refer to Web Content Technologies.

Web content technologies may include markup languages, data formats, or programming languages that authors may use alone or in combination to create end-user experiences that range from static Web pages to synchronized media presentations to dynamic Web applications. Text that is programmatically associated with non-text content or referred to from text that is programmatically associated with non-text content. Programmatically associated text is text whose location can be programmatically determined from the non-text content.

An image of a chart is described in text in the paragraph after the chart. The short text alternative for the chart indicates that a description follows. Refer to Understanding Text Alternatives for more information. The term "gig" means something different if it occurs in a discussion of music concerts than it does in article about computer hard drive space, but the appropriate definition can be determined from context.

By contrast, the word "text" is used in a very specific way in WCAG 2. Web browsers, media players, plug-ins, and other programs — including assistive technologies — that help in retrieving, rendering, and interacting with Web content. This does not refer to such things as Internet logs and search engine monitoring data. Multiple user interface components may be implemented as a single programmatic element.

Components here is not tied to programming techniques, but rather to what the user perceives as separate controls. User interface components include form elements and links as well as components generated by scripts. An applet has a "control" that can be used to move through content by line or page or random access. Since each of these would need to have a name and be settable independently, they would each be a "user interface component. The user agent presents content through one or more viewports. Viewports include windows, frames, loudspeakers, and virtual magnifying glasses.


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A viewport may contain another viewport e. Interface components created by the user agent such as prompts, menus, and alerts are not viewports. This definition is based on User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 1. Although any "other resources" would be rendered together with the primary resource, they would not necessarily be rendered simultaneously with each other. For the purposes of conformance with these guidelines, a resource must be "non-embedded" within the scope of conformance to be considered a Web page. The program lives entirely at http: Links or buttons are provided that cause the inbox, contacts, or calendar to display, but do not change the URI of the page as a whole.

A customizable portal site, where users can choose content to display from a set of different content modules. When you enter "http: Clicking on a product causes it to be demonstrated with a specification sheet floating alongside. This might be a single-page Web site or just one page within a Web site. This publication has been funded in part with Federal funds from the U. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U. Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.

Status of this Document This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Glossary Normative Appendix B: Introduction This section is informative. For an overview of how these components of Web development and interaction work together, see: Programmatically Determined Several success criteria require that content or certain aspects of content can be " programmatically determined. Accessibility Supported Using a technology in a way that is accessibility supported means that it works with assistive technologies AT and the accessibility features of operating systems, browsers, and other user agents.

Perceivable - Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive. Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language. Level A Controls, Input: Provide alternatives for time-based media. Level A Prerecorded Audio-only: Create content that can be presented in different ways for example simpler layout without losing information or structure.

Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background. Level AA Large Text: The image of text can be visually customized to the user's requirements; Essential: The audio does not contain background sounds. The background sounds can be turned off.

Level AAA Foreground and background colors can be selected by the user. Text is not justified aligned to both the left and the right margins. Operable - User interface components and navigation must be operable.

Make content accessible

Make all functionality available from a keyboard. Level A Note 1: They don't want to figure out how a bunch of clippings fit together. And that's why, according to Google, most people who follow a blog come to read the most recent post, don't comment, and leave. No one reads outdated posts. But visitors explore good content sites.

We saw earlier how Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Flickr have cornered the market on "user-generated" content for personal profiles, videos, short messages and photos, respectively. Only one type of content remains for visitors to upload With the addition of Content 2. Let's say that you have created an SBI! So your traffic builds even without the "2. Who's visiting your site about site modeling? People interested in child models And because this is their interest, they want to comment on each others' pages, as shown in what's a real-life example We have even had entries from celebrities who have entered their children and child stars.

One of the coolest things is that I have been invited to teach a training workshop at Universal Studios for Aspiring Talent with Disney Studios. It's "many-to-many," where your visitors do. You give a voice to like-minded people with the same passion. Instead of your visitors' neglected option of commenting about what you wrote i.

It wants to be fed every day, but we all have jobs and it's hard to do. So I don't blog as much as I'd like. Everyone else use it because "everyone else does. A relatively small group of 40, SBI! Check here for proof. As visitors create new Web pages, another module automatically adds these new pages to the site's RSS feed. They read and comment. They engage with the site and each other. They don't just come to a blog, read the most recent post and leave. They explore a full Web site, not a journal of chronological postings.

The more good content your site presents, the greater your "long tail traffic. Diversity of content wider variety because there are so many more contributors than just you means even more long tail traffic. This intelligent module maximizes income, delivering a near infinite number of placements, even varying the presentation of ads according to length of the initial page written by your visitor. It does the same for comments if you set it to do that. A complex algorithm drives the placement of ads, using Google's and experts' advice on how to maximize income within your own comfort level of how aggressive to be.

Because SBIers can choose which pages to include Content 2. Because your visitors churn out lots of free content, your site is frequently updated, even when you're too busy. Visitors come back again and again. So do the engines. Blogging software is free. Many people choose to combine that with free blogging hosting e. This is a serious long-term mistake, as explained above. Perceived as cheap, many people start blogging. But without a single location that delivers all they need, only a very few exceptional people with specific businesses news, pundits, those who blog about blogging can thrive.

The opportunity cost of lost time is never factored in. But you lose thousands of dollars worth of your time every time you start over. And with Content 2. Review all that SBI! The only bloggers making money are those who write "how to blog" blogs, outstanding journalists who stay ahead of everyone else in their niche, and the very few, extraordinarily talented pundits who can turn out smart commentary on a frequent basis.

Visitors grow your Web business exponentially, while creating a community of like-minded participants using your site as a single point of interaction. Just like Facebook or Twitter, your visitors don't care usually don't even realize that they're building your business. Those wildly successful startups became worth billions of dollars through the free, voluntary "labor" of others.

If you've ever built a non- SBI! If you can't build traffic of your own, it's hard to get the Web 2. But SBIers do build their own traffic, highly targeted visitors who are just as interested in the niche as the SBIer in many cases. Furthermore, visitors to SBI! That is why Content 2. It snowballs the snowball. You are no longer on the outside looking in, wondering how in the world you can capitalize upon people's desire to share, to show off, to help, to have fun, to contribute, in areas and ways that interest them.

In many ways, it's the best form of user-generated content. Your visitors don't merely create "Profiles" and gossip "Whassup? They do much more than just upload photos or videos. They create real, valuable text-based Web pages , the kind of content that Google really gets its teeth into and delivers tons of long-tail search traffic. Take the best of Web 2. Visitors create valuable content for you, quality-controlled by you And it's all internally linked, automatically, to strengthen the search rankings of your pages that offer C2 invitations. So your "core keyword traffic" increases, too. It has undergone 2 years of additional development.

Now that we have refined it according to SBIers' wishes, it's no longer an "optional add-on. C2 now has a permanent home in SBI! And when you consider what it does to site growth and interaction, traffic increase and monetization, it is actually worth thousands more Surfers are becoming more sophisticated by the day. They want to do more than comment on what you wrote. They want to express themselves. They want to participate. They want to communicate with like-minded visitors. SBIers use C2 in many ways.

Some of the more popular strategies include their own niche versions of My most successful invite is my 'ask a question' page. People are having fun with it, asking questions that I used to answer 1-on-1 by e-mail. Now, by having people use Content 2. My answer is available to MANY more people with the same question. The new C2 pages are nicely indexed by the Search Engines, drawing in even more visitors to my site with the same question. C2 not only saves me time while establishing me as "the expert," it gives me some opportunities to monetize on an amplified scale.