The y-axis of the distance is reversed to compare this factor with the other two. Paths of the sandbanks and the sand dunes; 4: The date used here is the average between the date of the aerial photographs used. Weill et Weill et al. An application of an integrated method for the study of sediment coastal reservoirs. Holocene sedimentary structure, natural and anthropogenic impacts.
Long-term change in the coastline and offshore banks. Late Quaternary Shoreline Morphodynamics. New York Cambridge University Press.
- GIZC et élévation du niveau marin : vers une gestion innovante des littoraux vulnérables.
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Norois, , 3, Migration and internal architecture. Oceanologica Acta 20, 1, Vie et Milieu, 47, Penn ar Bed, , Marine Geology , 1, Comparison of different data sources and an error analysis. Marine Geology , Application to bathymetric survey frequency in the Calais-Dover Strait. Norois, , 4, Treatise on Geomorphology, San Diego: Academic Press, 10, Internal architecture revealed by ground-penetrating radar. Both to understand the coastal dynamics and to improve coastal management, the relationships between coastal accumulations and nearshore need to be better understood Cowell et Thom, ; Pinot, ; Costa et al.
The issue is complex because these evolutions are dependent on their sediment budgets, the variability of climatic and oceanic forcings and storms, and the anthropogenic impacts, that act at all time scales geological, centuries, multi-annual, event, These relations of dependence remain, very often, delicate to highlight because of the latent periods which can exist between the reactions peculiar to each of these compartments. The needs for knowledge in this domain remain thus important Horillo-Caraballo and Reeve, ; Short and Jackson, It consists of several little low islands, islets and reefs that extend approximately over 6 km from west to east and 3 km from north to south fig.
It corresponds to the summits of a weakly submerged platform of tectonic origin and separated from the mainland by a graben. On both sides of this inclined horst, two underwater channels corresponding to two large grabens run at east and west fig. Although many islands are shaped in coastal erosion platform, dynamic accumulations of sandy beaches and dunes form the main part of the coastline of several islands.
Within the archipelago, the nearshore is also largely composed by sands that extend the beaches under water. To understand and also to better manage the sandy coastline dynamics of the coastal accumulations of the islands, field topographic monitoring of the beaches and the dunes are undertaken since Diachronic comparisons of old maps and more recent aerial photographs tab. This is particularly the case for the Nature reserve of Saint-Nicolas island, for Penfret island and for Guiriden reef. During the historical period and until nowadays, the surface area of the Saint-Nicolas island is progressively reduced fig.
Recent aerial photos, detailed topographical measurements and field surveys done seasonally at Saint-Nicolas island fig. During the winter storms, several meters of dunes were thereby rapidly lost fig. Beaches and dunes often progress during periods that follow stages of erosion but they can also retreat or progress without storm event. The various surveys show also that coastal erosion can occur without severe storm event and that the coastal evolution trends can be in the opposite direction for two neighbouring beaches located on a same island and during the same period.
Finally, to explain these observations, there is a need to better understand the rhythm and the modalities of the sediment supply of the beaches of the various islands and especially the relationships that can exist between them and the sandy nearshore dynamics. From to , for the northern coast of Saint-Nicolas island, the successive aerial photos show the conjunction between a sandbank incoming from the West, in the direction of the main littoral drift in the archipelago, and the progressive fattening of the northwestern beach fig.
As the sandbank surface area decreases, the western part of the beach becomes eroded and the sand supplies the north-eastern beach fig.
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Then the north-eastern beach becomes eroded and the eroded sand feeds the tombolo that connects Saint-Nicolas island to Bananec island. A sandbank also develops in the channel of La Chambre at the south of Saint-Nicolas island fig. Its fattening between and has also consequences in terms of erosion or sand supply for the southern beach of the island fig. However the sandbank continues to migrate eastward to the center of the archipelago where it is transformed gradually into dynamic sand waves.
During their migration, some of them reach the nearshore of Guiriden fig. Some relationship can be highlighted between the evolutions of the surface area of the accumulation of Guiriden, the surface area of the sandbanks which is assimilated here to its volume and the distance between the north side of the sandbanks and the accumulation that indicates the impacts of the sandbanks and sand waves migration on the development of the Guiriden accumulation fig. Some of the sand waves also migrate toward the western coastline of Penfret island.
The incoming of a new sand wave is followed by a positive evolution of the beaches and the dunes particularly at Pen Maryse beach on Penfret. Then a recession of the coastline occurs when the sandbank desappears and the eroded sands feed the northern and the southern beaches of Penfret before they are evacuated from either side of the island. Based on the diachronic comparisons of aerial photos, the observations of all the sandbanks and the sand waves from , or and allow to better understand the general migration of sediments on the nearshore of the archipelago fig.
The input of the sandy banks and waves occurs by both the channels of Bluniers and Deuzerat on the West of the archipelago as well as by channel of Brilimec in the South. Their main travel is orientated from west to east in the direction of the main littoral drift. The mean velocities of each of them are very variable depending on their location.
As a management style that is still in its infancy, the phenomenon of competency management has gradually grown in importance to the point that it is now a well-established practice in full development on both sides of the Atlantic. As well, this approach has not yet been well documented from a comparative standpoint.
The comparison of these two national contexts shows that we are clearly faced with two distinct systems, each with its own history, its pace, and its practical details in structuring, its means of organization and of leading and also, doubtlessly, having its own structuring effects on the environments in which it is established. Competency management will thus have given rise to, under the combined effect of a number of historical, economic or structural, legislative and cultural factors, specific developments, and dependant on each of these environments. In this way, managing competencies, in its French form does not cover the same reality as does managing competencies in the American style.
Several differentiating elements stand out between the two systems. The conceptual work from which skills management has developed appears more multidisciplinary in nature, more intensive, and at the same time, richer in the French context sociology, education, ergonomics, cognitive psychology, adult education, etc.
The centrality of performance in the debate and in the instrumentation is also clearly evident in the North American context. The key skills are first identified and measured through discriminating behaviours among the most productive workers, then these skills are defined, calibrated, and measured with a view to a certain performance level which is to be attained. What is even more significant, perhaps, is that competency management does not target the same employee categories: On the North American side, skills are found to be part of the employer initiative, and their application is strictly reserved for management.
Nevertheless, analysis shows that the competency management instrumentation presents certain important similarities between North America and France.