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Continue shopping Checkout Continue shopping. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne. Taking into account that the watershed is the basic unit for EIA of a reservoir construction a complete analysis of the watershed ecosystem and its ecological dynamics should be implemented immediately upon decision of the site, region and river to be impacted by the construction. This will define the scale of the study-spatially and temporarily and the magnitude of the necessary analysis-qualitative and quantitative.
The hydrological component and the water budget are fundamental processes that govern the watershed cycles ad dynamics. Precipitation, Runoff, Evapotranspiration, changes in water storage are basic components to be measured. The hydrologic pathways and the river ecodynamics, interferes with the biota distribution, productivity, and biomass are also other relevant components.
The atmospheric deposition dry or wet deposition is another important component since it can include the input of chemical substances and elements. The geology, weathering and erosion processes play a major role in shaping the landscape, the rivers hydrographic network and the loads to the future reservoir. The hydrogeochemistry of the catchment is another component that connects soil, soil uses, watershed uses with water quality either as confirmation of impacts or conservation processes in the watershed.
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Biodiversity and the composition and distribution the biota are extremely important for the understanding of input-output budgets on watersheds. Phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and toxic metals move from the soil to the water to organism, therefore the element budget is another basic component of the EIA of the reservoir construction quantification of sulphur and carbon budget in catchments many be helpful in evaluating the relevance and the quantitative importance of the gas emissions, especially greenhouse gas emissions of the terrestrial and aquatic systems.
Cycles of trace metals in the catchment should be evaluated also for a better element budget. One of the important features of a EIA for a reservoir construction is the determination of the temporal and spatial scales of the study, considering the Area of Direct Influence of the Reservoir and the Area of the Indirect Influence.
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However, stream discharges may vary greatly during heavy rainfall periods ;runoffs also vary throughout the watershed, therefore daily and seasonal variations should be incorporated into the analysis of the biogeophysical factors. For example climatology should be collected with hourly and daily information.
It is important also to consider historical data over decades in order to analyze tendencies and future perspectives. Paleoecological methods introduced in order to detect physical, chemical and biological changes in the part present and future perspectives of the reservoir construction should be included in EIA.
Figure 1 shows a scheme of all possible interactions to be taken into account in an EIA of reservoir construction. Interaction between the basic ecological processes, the biogeophysical components with the socio environmental economic ones were described and discussed in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment initiative that promoted a new vision of ecosystem services for the human well being, and emphasized the need for a strong analysis of these components that are both causes and consequences of changes in the site of the reservoir construction MEA, Evaluation of social processes associated with reservoir construction, sites of the migrating population, economic impacts in urban and rural areas, and the health situation both in the existing towns, rural and periurban regions, as well as in the construction sites is of fundamental importance in the overall impact assessment.
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Land cover, land use studies and its changes will provide insights into the new patterns of occupation of the landscape, and its future perspectives. As a complement to Table 1 the following information has to be obtained Table 2 for a advanced EIA of a reservoir in a watershed. The construction of a reservoir has a very important impact in the functioning of ecosystems-rivers and their watersheds.
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The original project of Belo Monte was modified in order not only to mitigate impacts but to provide a strong planning process for the reservoir construction and the development of the region see Saracura, this volume The entire area of influence of the reservoir will be developed, specially the infrastructure, with employment and the business opportunities.
Considering that indigenous rights and the ecological functioning of Xingu River are protected it can be said that in Belo Monte Power Plant a true sustainable development procedure was implemented. The major consequence of the planning process for Belo Monte Power Plant is the operation scheme of the reservoir that will function as a flowthrough plant, reducing the area of the main reservoir and its flooding, therefore reducing the impact.
The other consequence is the reduction of the retention time. Accordingly to Tundisi and Straskraba, and Straskraba retention time is the key factor that controls the water quality of a reservoir, and downstream. The continuous optimization of the reservoir planning, the advanced operation system proposed, will provide a basis for reduction of the initial impact promoting sustainability and new perspectives for Amazonian reservoirs Kennedy, As pointed out by Tundisi et al.
Mechanisms that maintain this biodiversity are the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to water level fluctuations and the interaction of climatological, hydrological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. Preserving these processes in the reservoir construction and operation is fundamental for the Amazon region reservoir construction. The lessons learned in Belo Monte, will be undoubted a valuable asset for planning and strategies for new reservoir construction in this region.
The understanding of the dynamics of the system will provide the basis for the implementation of a operation system of the reservoir which preserves water quality upstream and downstream and maintains connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In order to question as a positive condition for the resilience therefore maintaining it a well preserved network of connected tributaries will be essential. This will prevent the river or reservoir to tip into a new state, due to impacts that pushes the system this a new state.
The designed operation system for the production of hydropower will maintain the connectivity of the tributaries, at the future Belo Monte Power Plant in its area of influence Tundisi et al. Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction offers a new perspective for development, and opportunities for the implementation of restoration economy and restaurative development in the watersheds.
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The implementation of a planning procedure at an early stage of the evaluation and the inclusion of a systemic and integrated approach is fundamental for a sustainable project. Analysis of the promotion of economic development versus preservation of biodiversity, ecological services, has to be considered at all stages of the construction with a permanent environmental commitment.
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Compensation and social programs are key for the future functioning of the reservoir and its impacts in the watersheds. Storm Cunningham surveys the wide range of restoration industries and points out the connections among them. He shows, for example, how the restoration of a river ecosystem can have a major impact on the commercial success of a redeveloped historic urban waterfront.
Written for a broad range of audiences, The Restoration Economy is an entertaining blend of business, science, and economics that details exciting new business and investment opportunities in this dynamic economic sector. Putting It All Together. Education Memberships Journals and Events.