These can be expressed through the eyes, hands, fingers, head, a gesture in Japanese culture, made by pulling a lower eyelid down to expose the red underneath. A raised, clenched fist is used as a gesture of defiance by a number of groups and it is usually considered to be hostile, yet without any sexual, scatological, or notionally offensive connotations. The crotch-grab is done almost exclusively by males and it is, as the name suggests, a grabbing of the penis and testicles - usually through clothing. The cutthroat gesture is performed by drawing the hand, or a finger or two, across the throat and it represents slitting the throat with a knife, and means that the gesturer or someone else is metaphorically being killed.
It is rarely if ever used literally to refer to death, the gesture earned a great deal of national notoriety in the NFL during the season in which several players did the cutthroat gesture. The dickhead gesture is made by holding a hand to ones forehead, the thumb and fingers usually forming a C shape, the image suggested is a large penis growing out of the forehead. Police — A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder. Their powers include the use of force.
Law enforcement, however, constitutes part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, in some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property. Many police forces suffer from police corruption to a greater or lesser degree, the police force is usually a public sector service, meaning they are paid through taxes.
As police are often interacting with individuals, slang terms are numerous, many slang terms for police officers are decades or centuries old with lost etymology. Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by prefects for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period, in Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period. Under each prefect were subprefects who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area, some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives.
The concept of the system spread to other cultures such as Korea. In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police, in Athens, a group of Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, and also assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, and making arrests. Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves, in the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security.
Local watchmen were hired by cities to some extra security. Magistrates such as fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and their duties included apprehending thieves and robbers and capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force, in medieval Spain, Santa Hermandades, or holy brotherhoods, peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life, especially in Castile.
These organizations were intended to be temporary, but became a fixture of Spain. Visiting card — A visiting card, also known as a calling card, is a small card with ones name printed on it, and often bearing an artistic design. Visiting cards became a tool of etiquette, with sophisticated rules governing their use. The essential convention was one person would not expect to see another person in his own home without first leaving his visiting card for the person at his home. Upon leaving the card, he would not expect to be admitted at first and this would serve as a signal that a personal visit and meeting at home would be welcome.
On the other hand, if no card was forthcoming, or if a card was sent in an envelope, a personal visit was thereby discouraged. As an adoption from France, they were called une carte dadresse from to , visiting cards became common among the aristocracy of Europe, and also in the United States. The whole procedure depended upon there being servants to open the door and receive the cards and it was, therefore, if a card was left with a turned corner it indicated that the card had been left in person rather than by a servant.
Next day Paul found Stubbs card on his table, the turned up. Paul went to Hertford to call on Stubbs, but found him out and he left his card, the corner turned up. Some visiting cards included refined engraved ornaments, embossed lettering, however, the standard form visiting card in the 19th century in the United Kingdom was a plain card with nothing more than the bearers name on it. Sometimes the name of a gentlemens club might be added, visiting cards were kept in highly decorated card cases. The visiting card is no longer the feature of upper middle class and upper class life that it once was in Europe.
Much more common is the card, in which contact details, including address. This has led to the inclusion of such details even on modern domestic visiting cards, a practice endorsed by modern books of etiquette, such as Debretts New Etiquette. Jack the Ripper — The name Jack the Ripper originated in a letter written by someone claiming to be the murderer that was disseminated in the media. The letter is believed to have been a hoax and may have been written by journalists in an attempt to heighten interest in the story.
The killer was called the Whitechapel Murderer as well as Leather Apron within the case files. Attacks ascribed to Jack the Ripper typically involved female prostitutes who lived and worked in the slums of the East End of London whose throats were cut prior to abdominal mutilations. The removal of organs from at least three of the victims led to proposals that their killer had some anatomical or surgical knowledge. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October , the From Hell letter received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee included half of a preserved human kidney, purportedly taken from one of the victims.
Extensive newspaper coverage bestowed widespread and enduring international notoriety on the Ripper, a police investigation into a series of eleven brutal killings in Whitechapel up to was unable to connect all the killings conclusively to the murders of The murders were never solved, and the legends surrounding them became a combination of historical research, folklore.
The term ripperology was coined to describe the study and analysis of the Ripper cases, there are now over one hundred theories about the Rippers identity, and the murders have inspired many works of fiction. In the midth century, Britain experienced an influx of Irish immigrants who swelled the populations of the major cities, from , Jewish refugees from pogroms in Tsarist Russia and other areas of Eastern Europe emigrated into the same area.
The parish of Whitechapel in Londons East End became increasingly overcrowded, work and housing conditions worsened, and a significant economic underclass developed. Robbery, violence, and alcohol dependency were commonplace, and the endemic poverty drove women to prostitution.
In October , Londons Metropolitan Police Service estimated that there were 62 brothels and 1, women working as prostitutes in Whitechapel, the economic problems were accompanied by a steady rise in social tensions.
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Between and , frequent demonstrations led to intervention and public unrest. Anti-semitism, crime, nativism, racism, social disturbance, in , such perceptions were strengthened when a series of vicious and grotesque murders attributed to Jack the Ripper received unprecedented coverage in the media. The large number of attacks against women in the East End during this time adds uncertainty to how many victims were killed by the same person. The first two cases in the Whitechapel murders file, those of Emma Elizabeth Smith and Martha Tabram, are not included in the canonical five, Smith was robbed and sexually assaulted in Osborn Street, Whitechapel, on 3 April A blunt object was inserted into her vagina, rupturing her peritoneum and she developed peritonitis and died the following day at London Hospital.
Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city.
Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In , London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid municipal population was 8,,, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,, inhabitants at the census.
The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,, inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until , the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area. Elizabeth Stride — At the time of her death she was living in a common lodging-house at 32 Flower and Dean Street, Spitalfields, within what was then a notorious criminal rookery.
In , she work as a domestic in the Gothenburg parish of Carl Johan. Unlike most other victims of the Whitechapel murders, who fell into prostitution due to poverty after a failed marriage, Stride took it up earlier. By March she was registered by the Gothenburg police as a prostitute, was treated twice for a sexually transmitted disease, the following year she moved to London, possibly in domestic service with a family. On 7 March she married John Thomas Stride, a carpenter from Sheerness who was 13 years her senior.
In March , Liz Stride was admitted to the Poplar Workhouse and they had apparently reunited by , but separated permanently by the end of that year. She told acquaintances that her husband and two of her nine children had drowned in the sinking of the Princess Alice in the River Thames in In the accident, according to her story, she had supposedly been kicked in the mouth by another of the victims as they swam to safety, which had caused her to stutter ever since.
In fact, John Stride died of tuberculosis in Poplar and Stepney Sick Asylum on 24 October , more than five years after the Princess Alice disaster and she earned some income from sewing and housecleaning work. An acquaintance described her as having a temperament, though she appeared at Thames Magistrates Court numerous times for being drunk and disorderly. She learned to speak Yiddish in addition to English and Swedish and her relationship with Kidney continued in an on-and-off fashion.
In April , she laid a charge against him. She left Kidney again a few days before her death, Dr Thomas Barnardo, a leading social reformer, claimed to have met Stride at the lodging house at 32 Flower and Dean Street on Wednesday 26 September. On the night before her murder,29 September, Stride was wearing a jacket and skirt. Strides body was discovered close to 1 a. The yard was so dark that he was unable to see her body without lighting a match, with blood still flowing from a wound in her neck, it appeared that she was killed just moments before he arrived.
She was the person killed in the early hours of Sunday 30 September These two murders are referred to as the double event and have been attributed to the mysterious serial killer known as Jack the Ripper. Eddowes, also known as Kate Conway and Kate Kelly after her two successive common-law husbands, was born in Graisley Green, Wolverhampton on 14 April and her parents, tinplate worker George Eddowes and his wife, Catherine, had 10 other children. The family moved to London a year after her birth, on losing this job, she took up with ex-soldier Thomas Conway in Birmingham, she moved to London with him and they had a daughter and two sons.
Here she took to casual prostitution to pay the rent, to avoid contact with his former partner, Conway drew his army pension under the assumed name of Quinn, and kept their sons addresses secret from her. At the time of her death she was described as being five feet tall, with auburn hair, hazel eyes. Friends of Eddowes described her as intelligent and scholarly, but possessed of a fierce temper, in the summer of , Eddowes, Kelly, and their friend Emily Birrell took casual work hop-picking in Kent.
At harvests end they returned to London and quickly went through their pay, with money from pawning his boots, a bare-footed Kelly took a bed at the lodging-house just after 8,00 p. She was taken into custody and then to Bishopsgate police station, on her release, she gave her name and address as Mary Ann Kelly of 6 Fashion Street.
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When leaving the station, instead of turning right to take the shortest route to her home in Flower and Dean Street, she turned left towards Aldgate. She was last seen alive at 1,35 a. She was standing talking with a man at the entrance to Church Passage, only Lawende could furnish a description of the man, whom he described as a fair-moustached man wearing a navy jacket, peaked cloth cap, and red scarf.
Chief Inspector Donald Swanson intimated in his report that Lawendes identification of the woman as Eddowes was doubtful and he wrote that Lawende had said that some clothing of the deceaseds that he was shown resembled that of the woman he saw—which was black. That was the extent of his identity, Eddowes was killed and mutilated in the square between 1,35 and 1,45 a. Eddowes mutilated body was found in the south-west corner of Mitre Square by the squares beat policeman PC Edward Watkins, Watkins said that he entered the square at 1,44 a.
He called for assistance at a tea warehouse in the square, where night watchman George James Morris, neither had another watchman at 5 Mitre Square or an off-duty policeman at 3 Mitre Square. Apron — An apron is a functional accessory that layers over ones outfit to protect ones clothes and skin from incidental stains and marks. As a top layer that covers the front body, the apron is worn as a uniform, adornment. Apron styles adapt to the tastes of the times to suite the values, the practical, fashionable sentimental nature of the apron has made it a cherished accessory for centuries.
Because aprons provide comfort, protection and a sense of preparedness—the apron will always be a garment for people who work, clean, entertain. Because the apron is a top layer, the apron will continue to be worn as a fashion accessory both inside—and outside—the home, aprons were used by both the Native Indians and the pilgrims when America was first colonized—and have been well worn in America ever since.
As women started looking outside the home for satisfaction and work, people started doing their work without an apron entirely or they choose to wear a bib apron. The bib apron remains the dominate apron on the market and is offered in a multitude of variations, colors, detailing, simple, functional aprons were already a staple by the time the Pilgrims docked on the shore of Plymouth Rock.
American Indians wore aprons for both practical and ceremonial purposes, early female settlers wore plain, long white aprons. Later, Quaker women wore long and colorful silk aprons, as cities in New England grew, more elaborate options began to appear. Food Administration at the time and this wraparound apron was popular into the s when fancy half-aprons became fashionable.
Stores began selling patterns and kits to make and adorn aprons, aprons of this period followed the silhouette of dapper fashions—long, with no waist line. Women working outside the home wore whatever protective garments their jobs required, including coveralls, smocks, at home, they worked in full-length aprons with hefty pockets and a cinched waistline that were often decorated with buttons, pockets and contrasting colors.
Aprons became plain during the Great Depression, since fabric was scarce, women would make aprons out of Flour Sacks and feed sacks to protect their clothing. Dorothy famously wore a blue and white gingham pinafore in The Wizard of Oz, post-war family values made the apron the symbol of home, family, mother and wife.
As Sewing machines and cloth became available, aprons—both commercial and homemade—became the uniform of the professional housewife, magazines from the s and 50s feature apron-adorned women in nearly every advertisement that is related to housework or cooking. Aprons were a feature for irons, kitchen appliances, food products. Graffiti — Graffiti are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted illicitly on a wall or other surface, often within public view.
Graffiti range from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and they have existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, in modern times, paint and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owners permission is considered defacement and vandalism, Graffiti may also express underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Within hip hop culture, graffiti have evolved alongside hip hop music, b-boying, unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities.
Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, both graffiti and its occasional singular form graffito are from the Italian word graffiato. Graffiti is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface, a related term is sgraffito, which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was used by potters who would glaze their wares. The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, and such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, use of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism.
Safaitic dates from the first century BC to the fourth century AD, the first known example of modern style graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus. Local guides say it is an advertisement for prostitution, located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint and a number. This is believed to indicate that a brothel was nearby, with the handprint symbolizing payment, the ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which also survive in Egypt.
Graffiti in the world had different connotations than they carry in todays society concerning content. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, another shows a phallus accompanied by the text, mansueta tene. Etched on the surface of the Mirror Wall, they contain pieces of prose, poetry, the majority of these visitors appear to have been from the elite of society, royalty, officials, professions, and clergy.
There were also soldiers, archers, and even some metalworkers, the topics range from love to satire, curses, wit, and lament. Many demonstrate a high level of literacy and a deep appreciation of art. Most of the graffiti refer to the frescoes of semi-nude females found there, one reads, Among the ancient political graffiti examples were Arab satirist poems. Zodiac Killer — The Zodiac Killer was a serial killer who operated in northern California in the late s and early s. The Zodiac murdered victims in Benicia, Vallejo, Lake Berryessa, four men and three women between the ages of 16 and 29 were targeted.
The killer originated the name Zodiac in a series of taunting letters sent to the local Bay Area press, of the four cryptograms sent, only one has been definitively solved. Suspects have been named by law enforcement and amateur investigators, the San Francisco Police Department marked the case inactive in April , but re-opened it at some point prior to March The case also remains open in the city of Vallejo, as well as in Napa County, the California Department of Justice has maintained an open case file on the Zodiac murders since Although the Zodiac claimed 37 murders in letters to the newspapers, investigators agree on only seven confirmed victims, two of whom survived.
No evidence has been uncovered to connect Lasss disappearance with the Zodiac Killer definitively. There is also a suspected third escapee from the Zodiac Killer, Kathleen Johns,22, allegedly abducted on March 22,, on Highway near I, in an area west of Modesto. The couple instead visited a friend before stopping at a local restaurant, at about 10,15 p. Faraday parked his mothers Rambler in a gravel turnout, which was a well-known lovers lane. Shortly after 11,00 p. Utilizing available forensic data, Robert Graysmith postulated that another car pulled into the turnout, just prior to 11,00 pm, the killer apparently exited the second car and walked toward the Rambler, possibly ordering the couple out of the Rambler.
Jensen appeared to have exited the car first, yet when Faraday was halfway out, fleeing from the killer, Jensen was gunned down twenty-eight feet from the car with five shots through her back. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time.
San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in , after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to BC.
Upon independence from Spain in , the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In , Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography.
The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1, in to 25, by December The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels, many were left to rot, by the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships.
By Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in and the U. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush. Cryptogram — A cryptogram is a type of puzzle that consists of a short piece of encrypted text.
Generally the cipher used to encrypt the text is simple enough that the cryptogram can be solved by hand, frequently used are substitution ciphers where each letter is replaced by a different letter or number. To solve the puzzle, one must recover the original lettering, though once used in more serious applications, they are now mainly printed for entertainment in newspapers and magazines. Other types of classical ciphers are used to create cryptograms.
Calling card (crime)
An example is the book cipher where a book or article is used to encrypt a message, the ciphers used in cryptograms were not originally created for entertainment purposes, but for real encryption of military or personal secrets. The first use of the cryptogram for entertainment purposes occurred during the Middle Ages by monks who had time for intellectual games. In the 19th century Edgar Allan Poe helped to popularize cryptograms with many newspaper, a well-known example of cryptograms in contemporary culture is the syndicated newspaper puzzle Crypto quip. Double letters, apostrophes, and the fact that no letter can substitute for itself in the cipher also offer clues to the solution, occasionally, cryptogram puzzle makers will start the solver off with a few letters.
The Cryptogram is also the name of the publication of the American Cryptogram Association. While the Cryptogram has remained popular, over time other puzzles similar to it have emerged, one of these is the Cryptoquote, which is a famous quote encrypted in the same way as a Cryptogram. A more recent version, with a biblical twist, is CodedWord and this puzzle makes the solution available only online where it provides a short exegesis on the biblical text.
Yet a third is the Cryptoquiz and this puzzle starts off at the top with a category. For example, Flowers might be used, below this is a list of encrypted words which are related to the stated category. The person must then solve for the entire list to finish the puzzle, yet another type involves using numbers as they relate to texting to solve the puzzle. The Zodiac Killer sent four cryptograms to police while he was still active, despite much research and many investigations, only one of these has been translated, which was of no help in identifying the serial killer.
List of famous ciphertexts American Cryptogram Association. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by Like many other newspapers, it has experienced a fall in circulation in the early 21st century. The newspaper publishes two web sites, SFGate, which has a mixture of news and web features.
Between World War II and , new editor Scott Josephine Newhall took a bold, the newspaper grew in circulation to become the citys largest, overtaking the rival San Francisco Examiner. The demise of other San Francisco dailies through the late s and early s left the Examiner, from on the two papers shared a single classified-advertising operation. This arrangement stayed in place until the Hearst Corporation took full control of the Chronicle, beginning in the early s, the Chronicle started to face competition beyond the borders of San Francisco.
The Chronicle launched five zoned sections to appear in the Friday edition of the paper, the sections covered San Francisco, and four different suburban areas. They each featured a unique columnist, enterprise pieces and local news specific to the community, the newspaper added 40 full-time staff positions to work in the suburban bureaus. The frequent bold-faced, all-capital-letter headlines typical of the Chronicles front page were eliminated, editor Ward Bushees note heralded the issue as the start of a new era for the Chronicle.
On July 6,, the paper unveiled some alterations to the new design that included yet newer section fronts and wider use of color photographs and graphics. In a special section publisher Frank J. Vega described new, the newer look was accompanied by a reduction in size of the broadsheet. On November 9,, the Chronicle became the first newspaper in the nation to print on high-quality glossy paper, the high-gloss paper is used for some section fronts and inside pages.
- Das Sonnenkreuz.
- Facing Illness, Finding Peace!
- Infinite Self.
- Shop by category;
- And the Angels Sang;
As of the publisher of the Chronicle is Jeffrey Johnson, audrey Cooper was named editor-in-chief in January and is the first woman to hold the position. The concept of the zodiac originated in Babylonian astrology, and was influenced by Hellenistic culture. According to astrology, celestial phenomena relate to human activity on the principle of as above, so below, beyond the celestial bodies, other astrological points that are dependent on geographical location and time are also referenced within this ecliptic coordinate system.
In Western and Indian astrology, the emphasis is on space, in Chinese astrology, by contrast, the emphasis is on time, with the zodiac operating on cycles of years, months, and hours of the day. A common feature of all three traditions however, is the significance of the Ascendant — the zodiac sign that is rising on the horizon at the moment of a persons birth. While Western astrology is essentially a product of Greco-Roman culture, some of its basic concepts originated in Babylonia.
Isolated references to signs in Sumerian sources are insufficient to speak of a Sumerian zodiac. Specifically, the division of the ecliptic in twelve equal sectors is a Babylonian conceptual construction, by the 4th century BC, Babylonians astronomy and their system of celestial omens were influencing the Greek culture and, by the late 2nd century BC, Egyptian astrology was also mixing in. Association of the signs with Empedocles four classical elements was another important development in the characterization of the twelve signs.
The following table enumerates the twelve divisions of celestial longitude, with the Latin names and the English translation. Association of calendar dates with astrological signs only makes sense when referring to Sun sign astrology, Empedocles, a fifth-century BC Greek philosopher, identified Fire, Earth, Air, and Water as elements. Different mixtures of these produced the different natures of things.
Empedocles said that those who were born with equal proportions of the four elements are more intelligent and have the most exact perceptions. The four astrological elements are considered as a direct equivalent to Hippocrates personality types. A modern approach looks at elements as the substance of experience. Sun cross — A sun cross is the term for a symbol consisting of an equilateral cross inside a circle when considered as a solar symbol. The design is found in the symbolism of prehistoric cultures. The symbols ubiquity and apparent importance in prehistoric religion have given rise to its interpretation as a solar symbol, the same symbol is in use as a modern astronomical symbol representing the Earth rather than the Sun.
The cross-in-a-circle was interpreted as a solar symbol derived from the interpretation of the disc of the Sun as the wheel of the chariot of the Sun god. Wieseler postulated an Gothic rune hvel representing the deity by the wheel symbol of a cross-in-a-circle. The English term Sun-Cross, on the hand, is comparatively recent, apparently loaned from German Sonnenkreuz. The German term Sonnenkreuz was used in 19th-century scholarly literature of any cross symbol interpreted as a solar symbol, Sonnenkreuz was used of the flag design of the Paneuropean Union in the s.
Popular legend in Ireland says that the Celtic Christian cross was introduced by Saint Patrick or possibly Saint Declan and it has often been claimed that Patrick combined the symbol of Christianity with the sun cross to give pagan followers an idea of the importance of the cross. By linking it with the idea of the properties of the sun. Other interpretations claim that placing the cross on top of the circle represents Christs supremacy over the pagan sun, the original Coptic cross often includes a circle that is derived from the ankh, as the circles represent the sun god, Ra.
Early Gnostic sects also used a circle cross, the Bronze Age symbol has also been connected with the spoked chariot wheel, which at the time was four-spoked. In the context of a culture that celebrated the Sun chariot, the same symbol represents the Earth in astronomical symbols, while the Sun is represented by a circle with a center point. The Native Americans and other indigenous peoples using the solar cross on their symbolic. In modern music tablature, the solar cross denotes a change of a guitar tone distortion. The Sassanian Empire in Persia used a similar solar cross on their banner, the Norwegian party Nasjonal Samling used a golden sun cross on a red background as an official symbol from to The cross with the circle was attached to Olaf II of Norway, patron saint of Norway, several neo-Nazi groups use the solar cross to represent white supremacy.
The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in to serve as the new national capital.
In , Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in Washington had an population of , as of July Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in near Point of Rocks, Maryland. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of , the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security.
However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in , many of the stones are still standing. Ten people were killed and three victims were critically injured in several locations throughout the Washington, D. One month later, Malvo was sentenced to six life sentences without the possibility of parole. On November 10,, Muhammad was executed by lethal injection at the Greensville Correctional Center near Jarratt, on February 16,, Keenya Cook was shot and killed at the front door of her home in Tacoma, Washington.
On March 19,, Jerry Taylor was killed by a shot to the chest fired from long range as he practiced chip shots at a Tucson. Several other deaths and injuries followed in other states from March to August The bullet exited through Gaetas back, and he pretended to be dead while Malvo stole his wallet, Gaeta ran to a service station after the shooter left and discovered that he was bleeding, he went to a hospital and was released within an hour. On March 1,, he received a letter of apology from Malvo.
On September 5,, at 10,30 p. On September 21,, at 12,15 a. Woldemariam was fatally shot in the head and back with a. Woldemariam was helping the owner of a Sammys Package Store close up for the night when the shooting occurred, nineteen hours later on the same day, Claudine Parker, a liquor store clerk in Montgomery, Alabama, was shot and killed during a robbery.
Her co-worker, Kellie Adams, was injured but survived, on September 23,, at 6,30 p. Muhammad and Malvo were linked to the killing, at 5,20 p. The bullet narrowly missed Ann Chapman, a cashier at the store, since no one was injured, no serious alarms were raised. On the morning of October 3, four people were dead within a span of approximately two hours in Aspen Hill and other nearby areas in Montgomery County. Another was killed that evening in the Takoma neighborhood of the District of Columbia, at 7,41 a. Buchanan, a year-old landscaper known as Sonny, was shot dead at Rockville Pike near Rockville, Maryland.
Tarot — The tarot is a pack of playing cards, used from the midth century in various parts of Europe to play games such as Italian tarocchini and French tarot. Each suit has 14 cards, ten cards numbering from one to ten, in addition, the tarot has a separate card trump suit and a single card known as the Fool. Tarot cards are used much of Europe to play card games. In English-speaking countries, where games are not played, tarot cards are used primarily for divinatory purposes.
The trump cards and the Fool are sometimes called the major arcana while the ten pip and four court cards in each suit are called minor arcana. The cards are traced by some writers to ancient Egypt or the Kabbalah. The word tarot and German Tarock derive from the Italian tarocchi, the singular term is tarocco, which means a type of blood orange in modern Italian. These suits were similar to modern tarot divination decks and are still used in traditional Italian, Spanish. The first documented tarot packs were recorded between and in Milan, Ferrara and Bologna when additional trump cards with allegorical illustrations were added to the common four-suit pack.
These new decks were called carte da trionfi, triumph cards, and the additional cards known simply as trionfi and these cards are documented in a written statement in the court records in Florence, in The oldest surviving tarot cards are from fifteen decks painted in the mid 15th century for the Visconti-Sforza family, during the 16th-century, a new game played with a standard deck but sharing the same name was quickly becoming popular. This coincided with the game being renamed tarocchi. He describes a deck with 16 cards with images of the Greek gods, however the 16 cards were obviously regarded as trumps as, about 25 years later, Jacopo Antonio Marcello called them a ludus triumphorum, or game of trumps.
Fragments of two playing card decks from Milan, made around , survive, Three documents dating from 1 January to July , use the term trionfi.
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Spider — Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all other orders of organisms, Spiders are found worldwide on every continent except for Antarctica, and have become established in nearly every habitat with the exceptions of air and sea colonization. As of November , at least 45, spider species, anatomically, spiders differ from other arthropods in that the usual body segments are fused into two tagmata, the cephalothorax and abdomen, and joined by a small, cylindrical pedicel.
Unlike insects, spiders do not have antennae, in all except the most primitive group, the Mesothelae, spiders have the most centralized nervous systems of all arthropods, as all their ganglia are fused into one mass in the cephalothorax. Unlike most arthropods, spiders have no extensor muscles in their limbs and their abdomens bear appendages that have been modified into spinnerets that extrude silk from up to six types of glands. Spider webs vary widely in size, shape and the amount of thread used.
It now appears that the orb web may be one of the earliest forms. Spider-like arachnids with silk-producing spigots appeared in the Devonian period about million years ago, true spiders have been found in Carboniferous rocks from to million years ago, and are very similar to the most primitive surviving suborder, the Mesothelae. The main groups of spiders, Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, first appeared in the Triassic period.
It is estimated that 25 million tons of spiders kill — million tons of prey per year. This amount is subject to change until you make payment. For additional information, see the Global Shipping Programme terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab This amount includes applicable customs duties, taxes, brokerage and other fees. For additional information, see the Global Shipping Programme terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Start of add to list layer. Add to Watch list Add to wish list.
Sign in for more lists. No additional import charges on delivery. This item will be sent through the Global Shipping Programme and includes international tracking. Learn more - opens in a new window or tab. May not post to Russian Federation - Read item description or contact seller for postage options. Sell one like this. Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing. A book that has been read and does not look new, but is in excellent condition. No obvious damage to the book cover, with the dust jacket if applicable included for hard covers. No missing or damaged pages, no creases or tears, no underlining or highlighting of text, and no writing in the margins.
Some identifying marks on the inside cover, but this is minimal. Very little wear and tear.