This means that God is three persons, not three gods. Technically, the doctrine of the Trinity states that in the one God is the person of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Each is not the same person as the other, yet there are not three gods but one. This is similar in analogy to the nature of time. Time is past, present, and future. The past is not the same as the present, which is not the same as the future. But, there are not three times. There is only one thing called time. The reason the word "person" is used in describing the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit is because each exhibits attributes of personhood -- not in a body of flesh and bones, but in personality.
In other words, each has a will, loves, speaks, is aware of others, communicates with others, etc. These are attributes of personhood, and we see the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit each demonstrate these qualities. Relics associated with Jesus. Watts state that the crucifixion of Jesus is as certain as any historical fact can be. Eddy and Gregory A. Boyd say that non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus is now "firmly established".
Muslims believe that she conceived her son miraculously by the command of God. Joseph was from these perspectives the acting adoptive father. I have to say that I do not know any respectable critical scholar who says that any more". Price does not believe that Jesus existed, but agrees that this perspective runs against the views of the majority of scholars. Dunn calls the theories of Jesus' non-existence "a thoroughly dead thesis". Van Voorst states that biblical scholars and classical historians regard theories of non-existence of Jesus as effectively refuted.
These units were later moved and arranged by authors and editors. Some material has been revised and some created by early Christians. His followers came to believe he was the promised Messiah and later split away from Judaism to found Christianity. The fact that Jesus existed, that he was crucified under Pontius Pilate for whatever reason and that he had a band of followers who continued to support his cause, seems to be part of the bedrock of historical tradition. If nothing else, the non-Christian evidence can provide us with certainty on that score. Meier states that Jesus' birth year is c.
Or if he did, he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity. Neither God Nor Man.
Age of Reason, , pp. Christology was a major focus of these debates, and was addressed at every one of the first seven ecumenical councils. Some early beliefs viewed Jesus as ontologically subordinate to the Father Subordinationism , and others considered him an aspect of the Father rather than a separate person Sabellianism , both were condemned as heresies by the Catholic Church.
Footnote on Contr. Not least, the nature of the image and how it was fixed on the cloth remain deeply puzzling". The roots of the problem and the person. Handbook of Biblical Chronology, rev. The birth of the Messiah: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels. How Jesus became God: The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilee. Jesus Now and Then. In Beilby, James K. An Historian's Review of the Gospels. The Oral Gospel Tradition. Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved November 3, Retrieved April 20, Oxford Companion to the Bible. The Bible and the Future. Systematic Theology, Volume 2, Second Edition: Biblical, Historical, and Evangelical.
Wipf and Stock Publishers. Archived from the original on May 1, Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. Christians, Muslims, and Jesus. A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. Retrieved June 10, The Historical Argument for Jesus of Nazareth.
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Retrieved August 4, Westminster John Knox Press. Theology of the New Testament. Society of Biblical Lit. The Encyclopedia of Christianity. The Book of the Acts. Introducing the New Testament. Exploring the Origins of the Bible. The Historical Jesus of the Gospels. What is a Gospel? The Genre of the Canonical Gospels. The Quest of the Historical Gospel: Mark, John and the Origins of the Gospel Genre. What are the Gospels? A Comparison with Graeco-Roman Biography. The Problem of the Markan Genre: The Gospel of Mark and the Jewish Novel. Society of Biblical Literature. Stanton 8 July Lieu 16 March The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies.
Can We Trust the Gospels?: A Guide to the Gospels. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required. The Gospel of John. A Theology of the New Testament. The Gospel of John: When Love Comes to Town. The Thompson Chain-Reference Bible. Scenes, People, and Theology.
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Jesus and the Gospels. A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature. Who's Who in the New Testament. Lincoln, 'Luke and Jesus' Conception: A Case of Double Paternity? The Gospel of Matthew. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth. An Intermediate Greek—English Lexicon: In Bockmuehl, Markus N. Cambridge companion to Jesus. Eerdmans commentary on the Bible. Jesus of history, Christ of faith. The Content and the Setting of the Gospel Tradition.
The Sermon on the mount: In Jackson, Samuel M. Son of Man-Tremellius V The Cambridge Companion to the Gospels. New Collegeville Bible Commentary: Following Jesus in Contemporary Context. The emergence of Christian theology. The missions of Jesus and the disciples according to the Fourth Gospel. The parables of Jesus: The Sermons of Jesus the Messiah.
The Parables of Jesus. Daniels and Smith Publishers. The parables of our Lord? Retrieved June 3, Zondervan King James Version Commentary: Introducing the New Testament: Its Literature and Theology. The Miracles Of Jesus. The words and works of Jesus Christ. All the Miracles of the Bible. The Christology of Mark's Gospel. The Collegeville Bible Commentary: Who do you say that I am? Jesus' teaching role in Matthew's gospel. All the Apostles of the Bible. The Synoptic Gospels and the Book of Acts.
The Gospel according to Matthew, Volume 1. The Gospel according to John. John Understanding the Bible Commentary Series. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Luke's presentation of Jesus: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico. The Names of Jesus. Matthew New Cambridge Bible Commentary. The Passion of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew. The Acts of the Apostles. Thus the term seems to have passed from an original local and chiefly political sense, in which it was used as early as BC, to a technical and religious meaning in the Judaism of the New Testament epoch.
Early Christianity and Greek Paideia. Retrieved 26 February The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church 3rd rev. The New Testament contains twenty-seven books, written in Greek, by fifteen or sixteen different authors, who were addressing other Christian individuals or communities between the years 50 and C. As we will see, it is difficult to know whether any of these books was written by Jesus' own disciples. The Quest for the Plausible Jesus: The Question of Criteria. Jesus in Contemporary Scholarship.
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John, Jesus, and History, Volume 1: Critical Appraisals of Critical Views. The Cambridge history of Judaism. The Hellenistic Age 1. John, Jesus, and History, Volume 2. Cambridge Companion to Jesus. Josephus, the essential works: Jesus and His Contemporaries: What are they saying about the historical Jesus? The Historical Jesus in Context.
The gospel of Luke: A History of New Testament Times. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. The Gospels in Rewrite. Mary in the New Testament. The acts of Jesus: Prophet of Purity for a New Age. In Dunn, James D. The Historical Jesus in Recent Research. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The Bart Ehrman Blog. The Cambridge History of Christianity. Handbook for the Study of the Historical Jesus.
Handbook to exegesis of the New Testament. On Correcting Misleading Nomenclature". Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus. The Jewish Annotated New Testament. Currents in Biblical Research. Journal for the Study of Judaism. Archived from the original PDF on March 25, The Blackwell Companion to Jesus.
The likeness of the king: University of Chicago Press. The forging of races: Harper Collins, , p. The historical Christ and the Jesus of faith. An Introduction to Its History, Doctrine.
Real actual (logical) proof there is no Christian God
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An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. In the Glory of the Father: The Bahai Faith and Christianity. He then analyses a series of intellectual attributes: Early Christians believed that the words of the Gospel of John 1: However, later on the Hand of God symbol is found several times in the only ancient synagogue with a large surviving decorative scheme, the Dura Europos Synagogue of the mid-3rd century, and was probably adopted into Early Christian art from Jewish art.
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It was common in Late Antique art in both East and West, and remained the main way of symbolizing the actions or approval of God the Father in the West until about the end of the Romanesque period. It also represents the bath Kol literally "daughter of a voice" or voice of God, just like in Jewish Art. In situations, such as the Baptism of Christ , where a specific representation of God the Father was indicated, the Hand of God was used, with increasing freedom from the Carolingian period until the end of the Romanesque.
This motif now, since the discovery of the 3rd century Dura Europos synagogue , seems to have been borrowed from Jewish art , and is found in Christian art almost from its beginnings. The use of religious images in general continued to increase up to the end of the 7th century, to the point that in , upon assuming the throne, Byzantine emperor Justinian II put an image of Christ on the obverse side of his gold coins, resulting in a rift which ended the use of Byzantine coin types in the Islamic world.
For instance, while the eighty second canon of the Council of Trullo in did not specifically condemn images of The Father, it suggested that icons of Christ were preferred over Old Testament shadows and figures. The beginning of the 8th century witnessed the suppression and destruction of religious icons as the period of Byzantine iconoclasm literally image-breaking started.
Emperor Leo III — , suppressed the use of icons by imperial edict of the Byzantine Empire , presumably due to a military loss which he attributed to the undue veneration of icons. In this atmosphere, no public depictions of God the Father were even attempted and such depictions only began to appear two centuries later. The Second Council of Nicaea in effectively ended the first period of Byzantine iconoclasm and restored the honouring of icons and holy images in general. Even supporters of the use of icons in the 8th century, such as Saint John of Damascus , drew a distinction between images of God the Father and those of Christ.
But now when God is seen in the flesh conversing with men, I make an image of the God whom I see". So what was true for the whole Trinity before Christ remains true for the Father and the Spirit but not for the Word. John of Damascus wrote: It is impossible to portray one who is without body: Around Charlemagne ordered a set of four books that became known as the Libri Carolini i.
Although not well known during the Middle Ages, these books describe the key elements of the Catholic theological position on sacred images. To the Western Church , images were just objects made by craftsmen, to be utilized for stimulating the senses of the faithful, and to be respected for the sake of the subject represented, not in themselves. The Council of Constantinople considered ecumenical by the Western Church, but not the Eastern Church reaffirmed the decisions of the Second Council of Nicaea and helped stamp out any remaining coals of iconoclasm.
Specifically, its third canon required the image of Christ to have veneration equal with that of a Gospel book: We decree that the sacred image of our Lord Jesus Christ, the liberator and Savior of all people, must be venerated with the same honor as is given the book of the holy Gospels. For as through the language of the words contained in this book all can reach salvation, so, due to the action which these images exercise by their colors, all wise and simple alike, can derive profit from them.
But images of God the Father were not directly addressed in Constantinople in A list of permitted icons was enumerated at this Council, but symbols of God the Father were not among them. Prior to the 10th century no attempt was made to use a human to symbolize God the Father in Western art. A rationale for the use of a human is the belief that God created the soul of Man in the image of His own thus allowing Human to transcend the other animals. It appears that when early artists designed to represent God the Father, fear and awe restrained them from a usage of the whole human figure.
Typically only a small part would be used as the image, usually the hand, or sometimes the face, but rarely a whole human. In many images, the figure of the Son supplants the Father, so a smaller portion of the person of the Father is depicted. By the 12th century depictions of God the Father had started to appear in French illuminated manuscripts , which as a less public form could often be more adventurous in their iconography, and in stained glass church windows in England.
Gradually the amount of the human symbol shown can increase to a half-length figure, then a full-length, usually enthroned, as in Giotto 's fresco of c. The "Gates of Paradise" of the Florence Baptistry by Lorenzo Ghiberti , begun in use a similar tall full-length symbol for the Father. The Rohan Book of Hours of about also included depictions of God the Father in half-length human form, which were now becoming standard, and the Hand of God becoming rarer. At the same period other works, like the large Genesis altarpiece by the Hamburg painter Meister Bertram , continued to use the old depiction of Christ as Logos in Genesis scenes.
In the 15th century there was a brief fashion for depicting all three persons of the Trinity as similar or identical figures with the usual appearance of Christ. In the Annunciation by Benvenuto di Giovanni in , God the Father is portrayed in the red robe and a hat that resembles that of a Cardinal.
However, even in the later part of the 15th century, the symbolic representation of the Father and the Holy Spirit as "hands and dove" continued, e. In Renaissance paintings of the adoration of the Trinity, God may be depicted in two ways, either with emphasis on The Father, or the three elements of the Trinity. The most usual depiction of the Trinity in Renaissance art depicts God the Father using an old man, usually with a long beard and patriarchal in appearance, sometimes with a triangular halo as a reference to the Trinity , or with a papal crown, specially in Northern Renaissance painting.
In these depictions The Father may hold a globe or book to symbolize God's knowledge and as a reference to how knowledge is deemed divine. He is behind and above Christ on the Cross in the Throne of Mercy iconography. A dove, the symbol of the Holy Spirit may hover above. Various people from different classes of society, e. They are depicted as floating in heaven with angels who carry the instruments of the Passion. Representations of God the Father and the Trinity were attacked both by Protestants and within Catholicism, by the Jansenist and Baianist movements as well as more orthodox theologians.
As with other attacks on Catholic imagery, this had the effect both of reducing Church support for the less central depictions, and strengthening it for the core ones. In the Western Church , the pressure to restrain religious imagery resulted in the highly influential decrees of the final session of the Council of Trent in The Council of Trent decrees confirmed the traditional Catholic doctrine that images only represented the person depicted, and that veneration to them was paid to the person, not the image. Artistic depictions of God the Father were uncontroversial in Catholic art thereafter, but less common depictions of the Trinity were condemned.
In Pope Benedict XIV explicitly supported the Throne of Mercy depiction, referring to the "Ancient of Days", but in it was still necessary for Pope Pius VI to issue a papal bull condemning the decision of an Italian church council to remove all images of the Trinity from churches. God the Father is symbolized in several Genesis scenes in Michelangelo 's Sistine Chapel ceiling , most famously The Creation of Adam whose image of near touching hands of God and Adam is iconic of humanity, being a reminder that Man is created in the Image and Likeness of God Gen 1: God the Father is depicted as a powerful figure, floating in the clouds in Titian's Assumption of the Virgin in the Frari of Venice , long admired as a masterpiece of High Renaissance art.
In some of these paintings the Trinity is still alluded to in terms of three angels, but Giovanni Battista Fiammeri also depicted God the Father as a man riding on a cloud, above the scenes. In both the Last Judgment and the Coronation of the Virgin paintings by Rubens he depicted God the Father using the image that by then had become widely accepted, a bearded patriarchal figure above the fray.
While representations of God the Father were growing in Italy, Spain, Germany and the Low Countries, there was resistance elsewhere in Europe, even during the 17th century. In most members of the Star Chamber court in England except the Archbishop of York condemned the use of the images of the Trinity in church windows, and some considered them illegal.
In the 43rd chapter of the Great Moscow Council specifically included a ban on a number of symbolic depictions of God the Father and the Holy Spirit, which then also resulted in a whole range of other icons being placed on the forbidden list,   mostly affecting Western-style depictions which had been gaining ground in Orthodox icons. However some icons continued to be produced in Russia, as well as Greece , Romania , and other Orthodox countries. The Christian characterization of the relationship between God and humanity involves the notion of the "Kingship of God", whose origins go back to the Old Testament, and may be seen as a consequence of the creation of the world by God.
The term " Kingdom of God " does not appear in the Old Testament, although "his Kingdom" and "your Kingdom" are used in some cases when referring to God.