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In contrast, McDonagh dissociates himself from the costumbrista agenda through realistic conventions with a touch of the dark humour to which TV and film-educated audiences nowadays seem to respond so well, and also by tying the people of Leenane indissolubly to their surroundings, starting with the geographical references in the titles, ranging from the most specific The Beauty Queen of Leenane , to the most general The Lonesome West , passing through Connemara.

This begs the question whether theatre companies or audiences would show the same degree of recognition, or even tolerance, towards similar portrayals of rural life that had originated in Galicia. The acceptability of realism in the Galician system is increased by the fact that the plays in question are translations from a more established source culture that is in many ways deemed more prestigious. Therefore, this example of realism can enjoy a higher level of acceptability as a form incorporated from a prestigious source culture than it would had it emanated from the Galician target system itself.

The status occupied by these translated texts in the target system is symptomatic of the status occupied by translation in the Galician dramatic canon. The place occupied by the sui generis realism cultivated by McDonagh in the Galician context and the acceptability enjoyed by Un cranio furado reflect the central role played by translation in this particular target system. At present, translation is considered in the Galician context as a very legitimate source of creative material for theatre practitioners. However, this was not always the case and the debate around the issue of translation was still very intense in the s.

This controversy derived from the sociolinguistic situation, namely the minorised status of the Galician language and the divergent approaches to broadening its contexts of use. For the critics of translation, only original creations in Galician could contribute to the establishment of a Galician dramatic canon. However, this may be down to the specific characteristics of A Skull in Connemara , ratherthan a general reflection of attitudes towards translation in the Galician system. However, as they developed their various arguments, it became increasingly clear that it is not an aspect that can be overlooked.

Nevertheless, they revert to that powerful Galicia-Ireland connection: The way in which the Leenane Trilogy has been marketed as Irish drama in the Galician context is particularly noticeable in the case of A Skull in Connemara. The visual language is unequivocally evocative of the Irish brand. By producing the illusion of transparency, a fluent translation masquerades as true semantic equivalence when it in fact inscribes the foreign text with a partial interpretation, partial to English language values, reducing if not simply excluding the very difference that translation is called on to convey.

Yet, the concepts of domesticating and foreignizing translation can only be applied to cultural manifestations in minorised languages such as Galician with some nuances. However, the aim is not to conceal the translation process as such, since the translational aspect plays a crucial role in the acceptability of the sub-genre of this piece as explained above.

As opposed to creating the illusion that a play belongs to the target culture by erasing any trace of otherness, the preservation of foreign cultural references challenges the audience to confront aspects of a different cultural reality that they are probably not familiar with. Conversely, theatre-goers are also presented with additional references to the source culture easily recognisable to them.

These are not necessarily characteristic of an Irish country kitchen but they fulfil their purpose because, in the eyes of the target audience, they are clearly evocative of Ireland. When queried about his stance in relation to realistic representation and characterisation, director Quico Cadaval shows a very pragmatic attitude towards recreation at the service of a vision:. The problem in theatre is a problem of convention: He is immediately identifiable as police, on account of his uniform and his gun. As well as raising questions with regards to the issue of authorship and fidelity, London illustrates the long-lasting effects of the transformation of cultural references on the reception of translated dramatic works.

In the translation of drama for the stage, the concept of performability replaces the idea of readability and this imposes a series of specific demands to be met by the translator. As per present day conventions, the translator of the performance text should remain invisible.

In realistic theatrical modes, the invisibility of the actors is also desirable, since they must give way to the characters, while ensuring a convincing delivery of their lines. This combination of fluidity and fluency required of the performance text hinders any attempt at the foreignizing strategies advocated by Lawrence Venuti. His ideas resonate with Hans J. In fact, lexical alternatives are often favoured on the basis of feedback from performers obtained during the rehearsal process. If there is interest, he then proceeds to work on a performance text which is by no means a definitive version but rather a malleable material for the director and the performers.

There is no doubt that his experience as an actor informs his approach to translating a dramatic text, as does the fact that he is not a translator by trade. In his own words: When he reads a play, he does so from the perspective of a performer, with its advantages and limitations. Whilst he has the benefit of an awareness of what works on stage and benefits from the opportunity to closely collaborate with the performers, his methodology relies to a great extent on an intuitive identification of phraseology and context-specific elements.

While the use of Irish symbols in the adaptation of A Skull in Connemara can be linked to the above-mentioned mythical connection with the Irish nation within the Galician context, these stereotypes are also commonplace at a global level as markers of the Irish brand. Although different in many ways from the early 20 th century identification utilised by the incipient nationalist movement in Galicia, there is a common strategic aim in the utilisation of visual elements, as well as in the manner in which the play is framed.

Several production choices suggest that the success of the play relies on convincing the audience of the proximity of Ireland, an idea that is expressed in the following terms on the hand programs distributed at performances: The implication is that the source text contained an irreverent essence that the target culture lacks and desires, a trait that can only be taken by force. Whereas the Irish may see a caricatured representation of Ireland through a compendium of stereotypical features, non-Irish audiences will just identify Ireland and Galician audiences may also recognise themselves.

I interpret the distillation of Irish identity present in Un cranio furado not so much as an attempt to open the eyes of the Galician public to a different culture but as an introspective view into how Galicians perceive their own ethnicity, their own national identity. Un cranio furado , hand programme.

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On the incorporation of Un cranio furado 3 September. The Theatre and Films of martin McDonagh. Irish Drama in the Celtic Tiger Era. Identities in Irish Literature. The Lieutenant of Inishmore. No aniversario da estrea de A fonte do xuramento , de Manuel, coord. John Benjamins Publishing Company. A History of Translation. Although an interesting area, it will not focus on the many examples of interlingual translation that take place throughout the text, but instead the less obvious and subtler cases in which the protagonist of the novel, Jacques Deza, provides readers with cases of intralingual translation.

This suggests that, if both the source text and its translation appear obscure and subjective, the certainty of the message that results from this process is rendered questionable. As the following article seeks to show, this ambiguity is present in the communication process, whether the linguistic exchange takes place between two languages or within the confines of one.

Thus, the relentless personal interpretation of messages in the novel brings into question the veracity of the story told by the narrator, turning the narrative plot into a domain where ambiguity and haziness emerge as all-pervasive. The term intralingual translation was coined by Roman Jakobson in , distinguishing between interlingual between languages , intralingual within a language and intersemiotic translation in which written text is translated into different artistic forms, such as music or cinema.

The notion of intralingual translation refers to the process of interpreting information within the confines of a single language, exploring the nature and value of paraphrasing and rewording Venuti , George Steiner argues that translation is a process that takes place every time a person receives a message from another human being, even when only one language is involved in the process , In this sense, translation is understood as an interpretation of information.

The main focus of the article is to assess the ways in which messages are interpreted or by the narrator, as well as how this interpretation constitutes an important tool in the creation of an all-pervasive uncertainty within the plot. The same subjectivity with which the author believes reality is experienced by human beings is transferred to the main character of Rostro , Jacques Deza, who also experiences both his own reality and conversations subjectively, making use of intersemiotic and intralingual translations respectively.

Firstly, the intersemiotic translation that Deza embodies entails a subjectivity that could be placed alongside the visual and plastic arts, which have long acknowledged that the representation of reality is utterly dependent on the eye of the artist: The movement of impressionism constitutes one of the many examples of subjective representation. It is almost as if there were a narrator whose impression of reality is being presented as the only one.

It is the individual perception of reality by human beings, but also and more specifically that of artists. Irene Zoe Alameda relates this to their storytelling abilities: This explains why, in the words of David K. Amongst other types of first-person narrators, Franz K. He states that the peripheral narrator: Therefore, although he is the main character and the person who experiences most actions, he also appears as though he were stepping back from the action to watch over it. The outcome is a first-person narrator who, although a witness of events, is nevertheless the main centre of the action and therefore is often found witnessing his own life.

Whether it is the reality around the narrators or the conversations they hear, both source texts are inherently unstable. The reflections and opinions about the nature and effects of storytelling in the text will be analysed in the light of intralingual translation. The interpretations about suspects advanced by Deza as well as his reflections upon them are amongst the most remarkable traits of the novel.

These are based on his partial experiencing of reality and on the subjective nature of language respectively. This suggests there is inaccuracy and ambiguity in the intersemiotic translation of reality into language. And how does intralingual translation function and affect the plot? Indeed, Deza states that what he hears affects him as much as what he lives BS , In his second stay in England, he starts to work for a mysterious organization, which he believes to be linked to the British Secret Services.


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Initially, his work consists of translating Spanish discourses of suspects into English. However, it is not long before these discourses stop coming from Spanish speakers and start taking place in English, shifting the focus from an interlingual to an intralingual interpretation. In fact, Deza is not merely interpreting verbal messages from suspects but also translating verbally what he perceives from their linguistic and non-linguistic behaviour: Therefore, he is interpreting intralingually, but he is also translating reality into language.

In both cases, uncertainty and subjectivity prevail, but intralingual translation poses a second layer of complexity since the verbal messages interpreted are a translation of some previous aspect of reality, a process which could stretch ad infinitum. In his own words about his job:. Interpretaba—en tres palabas—historias, personas, vidas. Historias por suceder, frecuentemente FL , There are a number of uncertainties surrounding the process of interpreting people.

In the words of Deza: His judgements and interpretations are based on what often is an absence of information FL , Secondly, his own interpretations, often based upon uncertainties, are subjective by nature because they belong to his perception. Deza provides readers with countless examples where he states the daring nature of his interpreting, describing it as: Aware of the uncertainties that he is working with when attempting to interpret the future, Deza observes that in his job he gets paid to: The future, however, emerges as unpredictable, as Deza observes: The nature of his job constitutes, thus, an impossible task.

He has to interpret the future based on a number of uncertainties, and although he seems to agree with the premise of its impossibility, he nevertheless takes the risk and experiences the bitter consequences of his interpretations, ignoring his own warning about how no one should ever tell anything to anyone, and realising that, although unknown to him in most cases, his verbal interpretations do have consequences.

If the true meaning of facts only depends on their interpretation, such meaning will always be inevitably subjective. Thirdly, and not without controversy, these interpretations are essential in assigning meaning to facts that would otherwise not have any. Hence, his interpretation of the suspects mirrors the interpretation of reality as a simulacrum through language; much as the suspects, reality is only ever experienced partially and is expressed subjectively through the inadequate means of a linguistic system.

Finally, there is great ambiguity surrounding the purpose or destination of these messages. The narrator admits he does not have any information about the purpose his interpretations serve, even questioning whether they have any at all FL, , ; BS , Just as expressions of life are connected in the most intimate manner with the living being without having any significance for the latter, a translation proceeds from the original. Herzberger posits the importance of this issue, alluding to the lack of control that he has over his words: Deza, aware that he remains ignorant of the consequences of his words, muses: Who listens to them?

And how do they interpret them? The novelist, she states, is not responsible for the ideas or temptations that his fictions provoke BS , 54 , just as they are not responsible for the actions that their interpretations trigger. However, Deza fears the consequences of losing control over his interpretations, as Wheeler observes: In the words of Herzberger:. One of the most interesting paradoxes of the novel is that, however unreliable and dangerous language interpretations are, they happen constantly and have the ability to shape the course of events. This sheds light on the questioning of reality, a fragile domain susceptible to the subjectivity and uncertainty of language interpretation.

The danger of this practice is patent in the plot; Dearlove is not the only one who controls his story. His job illustrates the following paradox: During the course of this process, Deza is also affected by his own interpretations since the decision to leave his job and return to Madridis based on the consequences of his own words about Dearlove. Arguably, this transformative power rests upon the idea of intralingual translation. In other words, the power of stories rests on the premise that each receiver will interpret and use the story depending on their own circumstances, desires or whims.

This process, due to its never-ending nature, takes place whenever there is a verbal discourse and constitutes a fundamental trait of language. The fascination with the consequences of speaking and interpreting is patent in the Miranda warning, upon which the protagonist reflects in the novel as another example of the dangerous effects of this never-ending process. The Miranda warning is a legal warning given by the police in the United States aimed at criminal suspects in police custody to prevent them from incriminating themselves.

They are given the right to remain silent because anything that they say may be used against them. This use of language prompts the idea of J. Deza remembers a time when he was told the Miranda warning inaccurately, and therefore invalidly FL , The dangers of speaking and the advisability of remaining silent are further illustrated in the campaign against careless talk.

Deza finds out the extent of its historical relevance through Sir Peter Wheeler. The campaign was launched in Britain during the Second World War to urge people not to talk to anyone about anything that could compromise national security. This fear of spies resulted in the inevitable perception of language as a dangerous tool that could be used against speakers at any point.

Sir Peter Wheeler describes the nature of this process:. The idea of careless talk, which represents the dangers of speaking and being heard, is inextricably linked to our third example, the act of eavesdropping, for the latter represents one of the dangers about which the campaign was trying to warn its target audience. On both occasions, the characters he spies on would have either used a different tone as is the case with De La Garza or omitted information in the case of Luisa had they known that Deza was listening. Therefore, the danger of language is intimately linked to the idea of intralingual translation precisely because this danger stems from the interpretation of the message by its receiver.

It is the appropriation of messages which, as previous examples show, leads to fatal consequences. In other words, one message has multiple intralingual translations, turning the act of communication into a subjective and uncertain process. These interpretations are both the only way for the message to exist and the reason why they can never be trustworthy. In conclusion, how does intralingual translation contribute towards the creation of uncertainty in the novel?

Stories fold into stories and are forever interpreted subjectively by individuals. In this inevitable process, the objective truth of those messages recedes ever further and readers are left only with their interpretation. Furthermore, the Miranda warning provides Deza with further examples of the dangers of language upon which to reflect, whereas the cases of eavesdropping illustrate how the danger is patent in everyday life situations.

Therefore, it would not be too far-fetched to argue that one of the main traits of Rostro is the obsessive presentation of events through an extremely personal intersemiotic translation. Moreover, there is the question of memory, about which Simonsen adds: However, first-person narrators who tell a story about the past are extremely common in contemporary fiction. Why is he less trustworthy in his telling of stories? In other words, his individual version of the story encourages readers to, not only question the truth of the story but, in fact, advance their own subjective readings of the text.

Es que quien escucha se apodera de aquello que se le cuenta. Deza deals with stories constantly cast by others, which amount to permanently ambiguous messages that he is constantly interpreting. Regarding the truth at a textual level, the lack of objectivity which this process leads to mirrors the partial view with which reality is typically experienced. Rostro illustrates that there is an inherent subjectivity in the perception of any source text, be it reality, textual reality or a conversation. The ambiguity that pervades Rostro ultimately stems from the author applying the same principles to his characters as to those that he observes in real life.

The result is an all-pervasive uncertainty in the narrative plot in which the very viewpoint of the narrator emerges as dubious, perhaps inviting readers to question their own perspective on life. How to Do Things with Words. The search for a usable future. Beauty and Art A Theory of Narrative.

Aspects of Language and Translation. The Translation Studies Reader. Since the Chilean education system has faced a crisis of unprecedented proportions. The school year was virtually paralysed as students of secondary and higher education, as well as teachers, took part in strikes that lasted weeks and flooded the streets of Santiago de Chile in the largest demonstrations the country has seen since the restoration of democracy.

The marches have continued throughout and , with over , students marching through the capital as recently as April this year Fang The movement has sparked national and international scrutiny of the profoundly unequal conditions that exist within the Chilean education system, as well as broader questions of social and economic justice in Chilean society.

Students have been campaigning persistently against the excessive cost of education, the widespread privatisation and for-profit nature of educational institutions and the increasing disparities between rich and poor in access to quality education at all levels. Their demands go far beyond the provision of additional resources for education.

They argue that the structure of Chilean education is fundamentally flawed, creating one of the most expensive and unequal education systems in the world. At the core of their frustrations is the belief that the Chilean model of education is a relic of the Pinochet regime. Key features of the current education system were implemented between and , a period of institutionalized human rights violations. Furthermore, successive democratic administrations have failed to significantly reform these structural aspects of the education system.

This paper takes the argument of the student movement as its starting point. Therefore, this paper will analyse the development of educational policy in Chile since the Pinochet era, taking a human rights based approach. By drawing on international standards on the right to education, it will examine whether Chile is meeting its obligations under international human rights law, to respect, protect and fulfill the right to education.

It will question whether economic and social policy implemented under an authoritarian regime can be considered compatible with social justice. This will require a brief sketch of the right to education under international law and a broader examination of the economic and social policy implemented under the Pinochet regime and following the restoration of democracy. The Chilean student movement has drawn attention to issues that go beyond their immediate demands for educational reform. They have highlighted deeper frustrations lying at the heart of Chilean society: The movement has finally brought the intimate relationship between the violence of the military takeover, the violations of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights that occurred during the regime and persistent social and economic injustices, into the mainstream public discourse.

In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights first established education as a human right stating that: These instruments place legally binding obligations on all countries that have signed and ratified them to respect, protect and fulfill the right to education. UN General Assembly, The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has provided further clarification on the nature of state responsibility to provide free education at all levels: Sharp disparities in spending policies that result in differing qualities of education for persons residing in different geographic locations may constitute discrimination under the Covenant.

This treaty protects the right to education as a universal right that is necessary for the full development of the human personality and its provisions mirror the rights set out in the ICESCR Organisation of American States , Art. Thus, the Chilean state has both international and regional obligations to respect, protect and fulfill the right to education. Drawing from this diverse body of international law, the right to education can be understood as a legal obligation on states to provide universal access to free primary education.

Furthermore, states must ensure universal availability and accessibility of secondary education and equal access to higher education on the basis of capacity, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education at second and third level. Education must be available , accessible, acceptable and adaptable. In other words, education must be free and government-funded and there must be adequate infrastructure and trained teachers able to support it.


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  6. It must be non- discriminatory and accessible to all, and states are obliged to take positive steps to include the most marginalized. The content of education must be relevant, non-discriminatory, culturally appropriate and of quality. Moreover, the right to education is an enabling right: However, there is a growing trend within economic, social and development policies, at both the national and international level, to regard education as a service for which users should pay, rather than a universal human right Tomasevski , xxiii.

    The result has been a dramatic shift in educational provision from the state to private, for-profit, interests. The Chilean student movement has been the most sustained and dramatic manifestation of public frustration in the face of this crisis. In an ironic twist of history, the country that was held up as a model for free market reforms in the provision of education has become the champion of the right to education and an inspiration for similar movements across the globe.

    However, such policies stoked fears among national and international business elites that the socialist government proved a threat to their personal and business interests Klein , Allende was perceived as a threat to US political and economic hegemony in the region Klein , This situation led to an extreme ideological polarisation between supporters of the Unidad Popular government and its opponents.

    All social movements, political parties and collective forms of organisation were dismantled Harvey , 8. It is estimated that 3, people were murdered or disappeared by the regime, that at least 80, people were imprisoned or sent to concentration camps and , people were exiled Klein , The overthrow of the Allende administration represented both a military and economic takeover that installed one of the most repressive dictatorships in Latin American history Silva , This included the negotiation of huge loans from the International Monetary Fund IMF on the condition of a major restructuring of the Chilean economy.

    IMF restructuring policies prioritised the reduction of public spending and the balance of payments deficit. They also embarked on a process of dramatic reform in social policy which resulted in cuts to wages, state employment and expenditure. Agricultural production was redirected towards export crops thereby reducing the food supply to the Chilean population.

    Inflation continued to grow, the real value of wages fell dramatically and price controls were lifted from all foods. This period was characterised by cycles of economic growth and collapse Harvey , The spurts of growth were enough justification to maintain the demobilisation of all political opposition. The regime relied on the economic promise of neoliberalism, as a source of legitimacy for their continued rule Silva , The crisis sparked the first large-scale protests since as people took to the streets to voice their dissatisfaction with the economic policies of the regime and to call for the restoration of democracy.

    This outpouring of public discontent did not bring the immediate restoration of democracy, yet it was significant enough to prompt the regime to re-examine its economic policies and to take a much more pragmatic approach to the implementation of neoliberalism Silva , The Chilean economy finally stabilised by and was experiencing moderate but steady economic growth.

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    Chile is the paradigmatic example of the abandonment of social democracy and the imposition of neoliberalism by force. Indeed, it has the distinction of being the first country to actually apply neoliberal theory in practice and has served as a model, and justification, for the similar imposition of neoliberal policies across the region Ibid.

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    The Chilean experience, whereby neoliberal economics were imposed and maintained through the use of military force, illustrates the incompatibility of pure neoliberalism with a functional democracy Branco , Moreover it demonstrates the difficulty in reconciling neoliberalism with the full spectrum of fundamental human rights. Neoliberalism embraces individual freedom as the fundamental human right. Freedom of choice and freedom of the market are seen as paramount in order for individuals to exercise this right.

    Political rights such as freedom of speech and freedom to vote are necessary to ensure that individuals can participate freely in the market. Whereas access to education, health, housing, water and food are considered to be individual preferences or needs, rather than fundamental human rights or legal entitlements. Freedom of the market and consumer choice enable the individual to satisfy preferences through the consumption of goods and services.

    It relieves the state of its responsibility to provide for economic or social rights as this would constitute an interference with individual choice. Nevertheless, the experience of Chile demonstrates that even the most fundamental civil and political freedoms can be sacrificed in the name of economic freedom Harvey , The crisis in also led to a dramatic reactivation of civil society after almost 10 years of complete political demobilization. For the following nine years the pro-democracy movements persisted with their claims for political freedom and began to engage in a lengthy process of negotiation with the regime, that ultimately secured a return to democracy by The need for political stability and credibility inevitably resulted in ideological compromises.

    Memories of the economic and political chaos that preceded the coup and the violent repression which followed, as well as the monopolistic presence of the Chilean military in all aspects of political life, meant that a conservative approach was taken with regard to social and economic questions. A central point of contention was the existence of the Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile that was promulgated in It formally established the authoritarian nature of the state and ensured that Pinochet would remain a permanent presence in political life even following the plebiscite that called for the restoration of democracy Fuentes , Other authoritarian features of the Constitution included presidentially appointed senators, veto power for the armed forces within the political system, high levels of military autonomy and an overrepresentation of right-wing sectors within the political system.

    It included strict barriers to reform that were designed to avoid future transformations of the Constitution, guaranteeing the long-term and disproportionate influence of both Pinochet and the military in Chilean politics Ibid, These governed legislative change in areas of political, social and economic policy and required a majority vote of three-fifths of the congress to secure approval Ibid, As such there was little public ownership over neither the transitional process nor the democratic framework that was established.

    This set the pattern for decision making over the coming years. Indeed the Pinochet regime had been very successful at political demobilization that continued through the transitional period Silva , The Chilean student movement is the most significant expression to date of the dynamic culture of political participation that existed in Chile prior to For many, the Chilean transitional process established a wholly inadequate democratic framework: The Chilean Constitution, while providing for political continuity and stability, become a key constraint in achieving progressive social reform.

    Article 1 of the Chilean Constitution states that: Thus, the Constitution belies the tendency, established during the Pinochet regime, of favoring private consumption and free market policies over state responsibilities in the provision of essential public goods and services. Poverty and social inequality were seen as morally repugnant rather than socially unjust. As such, lifting people out of poverty did not depend on addressing the structural inequalities that had been created during the regime, nor the articulation of economic or social rights, rather, the emphasis shifted to the voluntary provision of charity, philanthropy and poverty alleviation programmes for the worst off in society Silva , Nevertheless, social reforms have been labored and have not addressed the demands of the students for fundamental reform of the education system, nor tackled the root causes of social and economic inequality.

    The shift in educational policy that occurred during the Pinochet regime reflects the global trend towards the commercialization and privatization of educational provision. Indeed Chile, served as a model for other countries to follow. Globally, this shift has been marked by a change in attitude to education, whereby education has increasingly been considered a service for which the user should pay rather than a fundamental human right.

    The inability of individuals or certain sectors of society to enjoy their right to education was once considered a failure of the state to guarantee that right. However, it is now considered to be a problem of access that can be solved through market, rather than state, provision Tomasevski , Neoliberalism promotes the opening of markets to privatisation and a reduction of barriers to free competition Harvey , 2.

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    This often results in the removal of price protections on essential goods and services, while the state is strongly discouraged from intervening in other ways with market forces Frank , Public goods and services that were once regarded as essential to the general interest of the population are now seen as another source of economic growth and the accumulation of wealth.

    The liberalisation of education has taken place across all levels of educational provision. It is characterised by the reduction in overall public spending on education, increased competition among schools for students and public funding, the introduction of fees into public institutions, public-private partnerships in educational provision, the creation of for-profit private schools and universities, and state-subsidised private education.

    The demands for liberalisation, structural adjustments and debt repayments have made it financially impossible for many developing nations to meet their international obligations on the right to education Tomasevski , The military appointed a special representative to each university that would oversee the running of these institutions. There followed swift maneuvers to dismantle much of the public educational infrastructure by reducing the functions of the Ministry of Education and by handing over the running of educational institutes to private corporations Ibid.

    The egalitarian model was turned on its head. The Chicago Boys had by then established themselves as expert economic advisors to the regime and played a highly influential, if not central, role in setting the pace and the direction of educational reform. The regime quickly succeeded in its primary goal of dramatically reducing public expenditure on education.

    The percentage of GDP that was spent on education had dropped from 4. Responsibility for the funding and management of education was decentralised from the Department of Education to municipal governments. Municipalities now had control over resource allocation, the employment of teaching staff and curriculum development. Educational inequality in Chile grew at an unprecedented rate as a result of the drop in state subsides per pupil and the fact that levels of funding varied greatly between municipalities.

    This municipal divide has been a major contributor to social stratification in Chile, as schools in wealthier municipalities have larger tax bases and enjoy access to far greater funding and resources. Moreover, those wealthier families from poorer districts who could afford to enroll their children in private schools, began to remove their children from public education institutions.

    As a result, municipal schools experienced a steady decline in standards and an increasing social stigmatisation Torche , Finally, the introduction of system of subsidies—whereby public and semi-private, voucher schools were given state subsidies for each student enrolled—resulted in the transformation of a one-tier system of educational institutions into a three-tier system of public, semi-private and private schools. The voucher schools tended to be established in wealthier areas and were more selective in their admittance policies, whereas public schools were legally obliged to accept all students who wished to enroll.

    This resulted in the unprecedented expansion of the private sector, with many of the schools functioning on a for-profit basis Ibid, Moreover, voucher schools allowed for the weakening of teacher contracts, the flexibilization of working conditions for teachers and the abolition of union membership for teachers working in those schools Klees , This all took place within the context of the general retrenchment of the social welfare system, a weakening of the social safety net and the economic crisis of the mid-eighties.