Systemtheorie - Methoden und Anwendungen für ein- und mehrdimensionale Systeme (German Edition)

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Using a stately, meditative tone to temper or increase the provocation, the film uncovers a new way to express feelings of loneliness, kinship, fear and joy. She has directed longform and short art documentaries and has had her films screened at major international festivals. Where A re They Now? Die georgische Hauptstadt Tiflis wird heute von Kredithaien, Wucherzinsen, Pfandleihanstalten und Wechselstuben dominiert. K reditis L imiti zeichnet den Lauf eines solchen postsowjetischen Schicksals nach: Ninos Geschichte ist kein Einzelschicksal; zwischen und haben Nino, a woman in her forties, led a comfortable life in the Soviet Union, but in modern Georgia she finds it hard to keep up with the changes.

Nino resorts to the most wide-spread practice of getting a mortgage loan at high interest. Little by little, she gets deeper into debts, which becomes a vicious circle she cannot escape. She has worked as set and costume designer. Alexi lives in Georgia and Germany. What if We Go to the Sea? Marek beginnt ein Praktikum auf einem Containerschiff: Marek will die Freiheit kennenlernen und verliebt sich in den geheimnisvollen Matrosen Jean. Hat Jean wirklich einen Geliebten in jedem Hafen? Marek starts as a trainee on a container ship.

Marek wants to find freedom and falls in love with the enigmatic sailor Jean. Will it just be a fling or will it last forever? Does Jean actually have a lover in every port? On his trip across the Atlantic, Marek may not actually become a sailor, but he does grow up. His graduation film Sleepless K nights premiered at the Berlinale Forum and was shown internationally. Die Schornsteine der hiesigen Zuckerfabrik rauchen unentwegt. Das letzte Schuljahr steht bevor. Sara ist von ihrer neuen Lehrerin fasziniert.

In the small Danish port of Nakskov the chimneys of the sugar factory smoke tirelessly. Giant windmill wings lie abandoned on the outskirts of town. The last year of high school lies before Sara and her friends. They talk about the future, about the wish to leave to a bigger city. Karen, a young Faroese, just moved to the island to work as a teacher at the local high school. In class, discussions arise: Who sees us and in what way?

Who and what makes us who we are? Gemeinsam brechen sie auf. Just another summer day. But on this particular day, a piece of news, delivered by two officers in a police car, changes the lives of a family forever. As the journey progresses, the vehicle becomes more and more crowded with family members, picked up from home, work, the hairdressers.

As they sit in the backseat, alone with their thoughts, what they thought they knew about life, about relationships, has been violently altered. And while the focus on their despair is all too clear, around them everyday things begin to lose meaning as the world becomes increasingly absurd. He was born in in Rotterdam. Hoogendoorn graduated from the Dutch Film Academy with the short film Wes.

Between 10 and 12 is his first full-length feature film. It premiered at the Venice International Film Festival and was released in Dutch cinemas at the beginning of On her return home, Nadezhda is surprised by another problem: Her husband has missed several loan repayments for the cargo truck he bought intending to repair it and sell it. Nadezhda scrambles for money, but to no avail. By the time she finds out who the school robber is, Nadezhda is unsure of what lesson to teach him.

Zaharna Fabrika 21B, app. Die serbische Hauptstadt brennt. Scherben, wohin man blickt. The Serbian government thereupon announces mass protests, so people could express their discontent. Luka, a troubled teenager on the verge of adulthood, lives on the outskirts of Belgrade. Along with his best friend Flash, he is the leader of the local football fan club.

During an unannounced visit by the social worker, Luka is faced with a family secret about his father, who was believed to have disappeared during the Kosovo conflicts. As the day of organized trip to the Belgrade protests comes, Luka uses the opportunity to leave town. Tarot Srbija Tarot Serbia! Bei dem Versuch, Antworten darauf zu finden, sind die Filmschaffenden zu jeder Zeit weit weg davon, Klischees zu bedienen. Maki, a young migrant Tunisian, who among many others, crossed the sea to Lampedusa after the revolution, said to me one day: Burn the Sea stands at the paradoxical crossroads between the dynamic energy of an ongoing revolution, the drive to set out for Europe, and the violence of being refused entry.

The film seeks that which constitutes the sensitive core of a life at the moment of rupture. That which is tiny, common to us all, far from exoticism, but haunted by the dream, like a call. She studied at Toulouse University and campaigns for illegal migrants fighting against social exclusion and repression.

He arrived in France just after the fall of Ben Ali. Berchache is the co-author and co-director of Burn the Sea. In order to survive the harsh living conditions in the refugee camps in the South of France he had to work for the French government and even for the Nazi army. Pedro died in an allied bombing in Bordeaux. Zu gleichen Teilen feuert sie rechtsradikale Bewegungen an und ruft Menschenrechtsvertreter auf den Plan.

Through the people she encounters along the way, the film dissects the experience of asylum seekers in Cyprus: APLO activist and exile from Iraq is denied asylum within 15 minutes; neo-Nazi fundamentalists roam the streets in an attack on Muslim migrants; activists and academics organize an antifascist rally and clash with the neo-Nazis; migrants drown in the Mediterranean. Before emigrating to the U.

Her work explores the theme of identity and migration. Evaporating Borders is her first feature length documentary. In , a wave of refugees from the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina reached Denmark. With the existing refugee camps completely full, the Red Cross pulled a giant ship into the canals of Copenhagen. The ship, Flotel Europa, became a temporary home for a thousand people waiting for the decisions on their asylum applications. Among them, a year-old boy, Vladimir, who fled Sarajevo together with his mother and older brother. They spent two years in the limbo of Flotel Europa.

Two decades later, Vladimir Tomic takes us on a journey of growing up on a ship filled with echoes of the war. He lives and works in Copenhagen. Vladimir Tomic's art films are played out in the field of contemporary art and experimental documentation. Dem Vater schickte die Familie Videobriefe in die alte Heimat. Ein Land, das eigentlich keines ist: Und so existiert Abchasien als Spielball zwischen Russland und dem Westen, ohne wirklich zu existieren.

Eric Baudelaire launched on a letter writing campaign 74 letters sent over 74 days a script for a voiceover to a film in which Maxim Gvinjia, former Foreign Minister of the unrecognized state of Abkhazia, becomes the narrator. The film is structured by this exchange: Durch dieses verwegene Musikprojekt bringen sie es fertig, tabuisierte Gesangspraxen genauso wie die Verbindung zwischen Frankreich und dem Iran wiederzubeleben.

In Iran, since the revolution of , women are no longer allowed to sing in public as soloists — at least in front of a male audience. Defying censorship and taboos, the young composer Sara Najafi is determined to organize an official concert for solo female singers. In order to support their fight, Sara and the Iranian singers, Parvin Namazi and Sayeh Sodeyfi, invite three female singers from Paris — Elise Caron, Jeanne Cherhal, and Emel Mathlouthi — to join them in Tehran and collaborate on their musical project, re-opening a musical bridge between France and Iran.

Not only do they succeed in singing side-by-side in front of a mixed audience, but they also open a door towards new freedom in Iran. Najafi lives in Tehran and Berlin, Germany, where his theater productions have been staged to great acclaim. Wo genau liegt die Grenze zwischen Spiel und Wirklichkeit? Tricarico in the deep south of Italy. Those who are allowed to drink are winners. And those who remain sober are losers.

Thirty years later, he attempts to understand what has confused him about this game since his childhood: Where exactly is the line between game and reality? Are these men just playing? Or do they really mean what they say when their verbal aggression breaks out? From to , he worked as a secondary school teacher in Switzerland. Valery Liashkevich ist obdachlos. Valery Liashkevich is a homeless artist who lives at a railway station and for over twenty years has painted pictures in the streets of the Belorussian town of Gomel. For the natives, he is no more than a local attraction, but the filmmakers set out to show that this eccentric artist and philosopher has many important truths to tell: Two large exhibitions of his works — one of them at the National Art Museum in Minsk — sparked the interest of art critics.

The documentary was made with private money to support this extremely talented artist. Miroshnichenko has worked as a television director with a strong focus on historical and scientific programs since Crossroads is her first feature documentary. It has been shown and awarded at international festivals, such as the Warsaw International Film Festival.

P erekrestok Crossroads, , doc. Petr kommt aus einer Plattenbausiedlung in Pilsen, Tschechien. Seine Frau Simona hingegen stammt aus einem Reichenbezirk von Prag. Zu elft leben sie in einem Wohnwagen. Wie gestaltet sich das Zusammenleben mit einem Mann, dessen Lebensexperiment seine eigene Familie ist? Petr comes from urban Pilsen, Czech Republic where he lived in a concrete tower block. His wife Simona grew up in a rich neighborhood in Prague and was studying Czech and History at the same University when she met Petr.

Today, they have been together for 25 years, have nine children, no running water, no standard bathroom or toilet. Together, they all live in a caravan in the meadow, reducing their notion of an alternative life style ad absurdum. For the last eight years, she has worked as a director of documentary films and TV programs. Her investigations have led her to countries like Ethiopia, Brazil, and Spain. Vor diesem Hintergrund konstruiert Fedorchenko einen Film als Spiegel: The shamans of the two native populations, Khanty and Nenets, refuse the new ideology.

Polina convinces five metropolitan artists to try and reconcile the avant-garde with the pagan. The film is based on a true story. Fedorchenko studied at the Russian National Film Institute and has participated in the production of more than 80 films. Fedorchenko is the coowner and general producer of 29 February Film Company.

Before the iron curtain fell, everything and anything seemed possible. Where it was not about long-term success, but about living for the moment — the here and now. Commissioner of Sewers , doc , B-Movie: The Noise of Cairo , doc , B-Movie: The village postman is their sole connection to the outside world, relying on his motorboat to bridge the two civilizations. Im krisengebeutelten Griechenland hat man es nicht leicht.

Wo man auch hinschaut, alles droht zusammenzubrechen — das Land, das Umfeld, das Leben. Und sie startet sogleich in ein neues Leben: Maria is on the run. Behind her, fire and a briefcase full of money. In front of her, the hopeless vastness of the motorway. Only a day before, she was a caring mother, a loving wife, a responsible daughter. Today, she has gone rogue. Maria starts her adult life with the best of intentions. Ten years after, no matter where she looks, her world is cracking up. Unwilling to reconcile with a life of unreciprocated care, lost dignity, and broken-down desire to live, Maria attacks.

His short films have been screened at international festivals like the Oberhausen International Short Film Festival. Juli, Nora und Ben leben und arbeiten in einem kleinen isolierten Dorf am Rande eines mystischen Sumpfes. Juli nimmt das missbilligend zur Kenntnis. Nearby a haunted swamp, Juli, Nora, and Ben work together in an isolated village where their families were exiled during the communist rule. Their quiet world ceases to exist when a highway crew begins to widen the road.

Juli falls for the engineer Mili but worries about her ailing and confused grandmother, Noje. As the new road approaches, the village inhabitants have one last glorious night of fireworks and celebration. But at the break of dawn, Juli, Ben, and Nora must face a shared secret from their traumatic past. As a cinematographer and editor, he has collaborated with such filmmakers as Caveh Zahedi, Jay Rosenblatt, and Mark Cousins.

Angetrieben von der improvisatorisch-naturgetreuen Darstellung eines Ensembles aus dem Hip-Hop-Milieu, verdichtet Pascal Tessaud seine Low-Budget-Produktion Brooklyn zu einem sozialrealistischen Dokudrama inmitten eines konfliktbehafteten Originalschauplatzes.

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Shot on location in the socially deprived suburbs of Paris, this low-budget French docudrama brings together a young ensemble cast of real rappers, musicians, and poets. All play thinly disguised versions of themselves. KT Gorique, an award-winning freestyle rapper from Switzerland, gives a charmingly natural performance as the heroine Coralie, aka aspiring MC Brooklyn. Fleeing her family and arriving in the strife-torn Parisian banlieue of Saint-Denis, Coralie finds a job as a cook in a neighborhood community organization, where her rapping skills earn attention.

After working as social worker in cultural associations, he started directing short films as well as documentaries on urban culture. Dubrovnik , ein Jahr nach der Belagerung durch die serbischen Truppen. Doch immer wieder taucht Eta auf und konfrontiert sie mit sich selbst.

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On a hot summer day, the two climb to the forests above the city. Eta goads Linda into telling her about nonexistent sexual experiences; Linda kisses her, leading Eta to taunt her friend for being a virgin. Uncertain of her feelings, Linda pushes Eta. Das Leben als Jugendlicher ist kompliziert. Zusammen mit seiner Mutter Nadia lebt er in einem Wohnmobil am Strand. Nadia leidet an einer bedrohlichen Krankheit. When he first enters the Montpellier Opera House, Victor knows nothing about music.

To change the course of his suddenly uncertain future, for Nadia his mother, for Luna whom he has fallen in love with, Victor has decided to step out of the shadows. Here, the music replaces words. The feelings are expressed and the characters communicate. Der eine Garten ist symmetrisch, ein anderer naturbelassen.

Garden Lovers is a documentary love story about Finnish couples who have a passion for gardening. The film with comic undertones looks at their stories behind the hedges. The garden provides a framework for tales of relationship conflicts and joys; it depicts the many ways in which life can flourish; it gives strength and unites, but it also becomes a meeting place for farewells.

There is an invisible bond that grows between the couples in the film; they comment and comfort each other with their own stories. Free Spaces zeichnet ein erfrischendes Bild von vier Metropolen Osteuropas — jenseits von postkommunistischer Tristesse. In Free Spaces, I explore the relationship between democracy and public space. The film shows how citizens in post-communist countries Georgia, Armenia, Moldova, Ukraine , and artists in particular, fight for their right to express themselves and gather freely in public spaces.

Under communist rule — maybe like in any totalitarian system — public spaces were considered as dangerous, unpredictable zones. Today, a new generation of artists goes into public space with their works, from performances to installations, merging the artistic and the political. Her directorial credits include documentaries, participatory video workshops, and works for audiences beyond the art house context — from the visual arts fields to socially marginalized groups. Ivanceanu focuses on societies in transformation, in particular in a postcommunist context. Nachdem ihr Bruder emigriert ist, sucht die energische Adele nach Auswegen.

Alles scheint verloren, auch das menschliche Miteinander. Und genau das ist der Beginn eines Weges, auf dem die vier Frauen das Leben und vor allem ihre Zuneigung zueinander ganz neu erfahren. Four women take refuge in the country following the shutdown of their small family-run business, overwhelmed by the general economic recession. Working the land and trading products — against all expectations — is the chance for a new beginning, the possibility of a new life.

An ecological, zero impact film. A little story about happiness. Pizzicata marks his feature film debut. His directorial credits include feature films as well documentaries. Two adolescents disappear from a town deep in the Guadalquivir wetlands. Two detectives are sent from Madrid; both use very different methods and are not precisely going through the best moment in their professional careers.

A strike threatens the rice harvest and complicates the investigations of the two policemen intent on solving the case as quickly as possible. However, they discover evidence that many more youngsters could have disappeared. His subsequent films, 7 Virgins, A fter, and Unit 7, received multiple international awards. Doch alles vergeht, jede Sekunde, jede Minute. Es gibt kein Kino mehr. Film war schon immer ein Traum und Berlin nur ein Vorwand. The common interests turn into a love affair, and all ends in the morning. The film gets as close as possible to a free jazz composition. It's about colors, flickering lights, rush, sounds and the smell of a summer night in the city.

Everything passes and dies each minute as life is a never-ending sequence of things held for just a moment. And what was known as cinema is now just an intention of holding a camera. His films have been awarded internationally. In Kosac beleuchten drei schicksalhafte Begnungen innerhalb einer einzigen Nacht den Charakter Ivo aus unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln.

The Reaper begins with Ivo, a quiet laborer in an agro-industrial conglomerate, coming to the aid of a woman whose car has run out of gas on a dark, deserted road. Though he appears in the guise of a savior, the truth is that Ivo is anything but a hero: These days, he is quiet and withdrawn, struggling with his demons and with the ugly past that his fellow villagers refuse to let him forget. The seemingly benign roadside meeting is just the beginning of Ivo's long night, which The Reaper recounts in three seperate stories. He studied at the Zagreb Academy of Dramatic Art. Auch in der Kommunikation mit seinem Publikum ist die Verschleierung dessen, was nun ernst gemeint ist und was nicht, ein oft genutztes Element.

Schnell wird deutlich, dass Helge seine Geheimnisse nicht auf dem Silbertablett servieren wird. Wo beginnt hier also die Fiktion, und wo endet sie? Helge Schneider is one of the most extraordinary German artists. Jazz musician, entertainer, film director, actor, and comedian. His exceptional talent is his improvisational skill. In his world, the fantastic coexists with the ordinary and it is difficult to define the boundaries between reality and fiction.

Even in the interaction with his audiences, this element of disguise is used. But how does Helge Schneider react to a filmmaker? It is clear that he is not going to offer his secrets on a silver platter. Where does fiction begin, and where does it end? Helge S chneider hier und dort , doc. How many rounds you do have to spin on the dance floor until all your dreams come true?

But that doesn't stop them to search for love and sex with the same intensity of people wearing braces not clinical crowns. Der junge Arthur Vlaminck, der gerade erst von einer nationalen Eliteuni abgegangen ist, wird zu seinem Redenschreiber. This minister, Alexandre Taillard de Vorms, is a youthful, good-looking, and ambitious man whose energy is often directed in the most inane and futile directions. Trips to Africa, crises in Ludmenistan, speeches at the UN, and meetings in Berlin rub up against anchovy disputes with the Spanish, while quotes from Heraclitus add a timeless element to the modern political folly.

What if the labor movement emerged during the industrial revolution was still alive and awakened to fight the worst economic crisis? Protest to call the government's attention begin: But nothing is as before, not even the representatives of the last working class movement. It premiered and was awarded at the Seville European Film Festival in In Spanien legen 4. Doch nichts ist mehr, wie es einmal war: Als Jackie bemerkt, dass sie schwanger ist, ist sie perplex. Jackie, Mark, and their eleven-year-old son JJ are a close family navigating their way through life in present day London. Family dynamics, banter, and humor are part of their everyday lives.

Jackie discovers she is pregnant and is perplexed. Jackie says nothing of her situation, trying to maintain everyday life. Heat , short , Second Coming Tensions between the two nations have not abated since the war of Every spring the river brings fertile soil from the Caucasus down to the plains of Abkhazia and northwestern Georgia, creating tiny islands: Our story begins when an old Abkhaz farmer sets foot on one of the islands. The old man builds a hut for him and his teenage granddaughter, he ploughs the earth, and together they sow corn. When the corn has shot up, the girl finds a wounded Georgian soldier hiding among the stalks.

With him, the struggle of man is brought upon the corn island. His feature debut The Other Bank was screened at more than 80 international film festivals in more than 50 countries. It won him more than 50 international awards. Ivo und Maja leben ein unaufgeregtes Leben in der schmucklosen Vorstadt von Zagreb. Ihre Welt bricht zusammen. Film Festival Cottbus The story is based on real events, and it is about a teenager from Zagreb who was beaten to death on the street.

This event made me think about his parents, and how they dealt with this tragedy. I imagined ordinary people, who had always obeyed the laws and the rules. But now, when they are faced with this horrible tragedy, no one wants to help them, and they are unable to do anything about it.

No one listens to them, no one cares, they are simply not important. These people represent the majority that suffers quietly, and also carries on through the injustices done to them. My story is dedicated to these people. When society fails to function properly, chaos begins. He graduated from the Academy of Dramatic Arts in Zagreb. His feature films S orry for Kung Fu and A rmin premiered at the Berlin International Film Festival and have been awarded at numerous international festivals. Eine Flucht, die elf Jahre andauern soll, nimmt ihren Anfang: Sie sind frei, sind immer unterwegs.

Vollkommen autark und fernab jeglicher Konvention praktizieren sie ihr alternatives Lebensmodell in Einklang mit der Natur. Philippe Fournier, aka Paco, lives with his six and seven year old sons, having decided not to give them back to their mother after she won custody of the children. As children and then adolescents, Okyesa and Tsali Fournier must live their lives in the shadows, assuming different identities, hunted by the police but always free and on the move.

From attics to farmhouses, caravans to communes, they live in harmony with nature and their animals. They live with constant danger and fear, but also with the solidarity and bonds formed with friends met on the road, and the joys of living life off the grid. The Visit is a documentary with comedy elements, and a philosophical exploration of our fear of strangers through the ultimate threat to our self-image: The discovery of alien intelligent life. The Visit opens with a close-up of an animal. It instinctively reacts to something unknown.

Inside the OOSA, a phone rings. Deputy Director General, astrophysicist Dr. He is the founder and artistic leader of several art initiatives and part of the artist collective van Gogh. Michael Madsen lives in Denmark. Das Europa, wie wir es kannten, wird nicht wiederkehren. Die Menschen vom Hof-Kollektiv zum Beispiel gewinnen und verkaufen unter anderem altes Saatgut — auch um sich gegen die Lebensmittelindustrie zur Wehr zu setzen, die das Verbreiten bestimmter Sorten zu verbieten versucht.

This is getting boring. Of course that sounds somewhat polemic in light of the actual problems that are still apparent with the same relentless hardships in many European countries. Almost every filmic approach to working conditions also holds an engagement with the impacts of the financial crisis. Right through all classes, countries and professions, it is evident that the Europe we once knew, will not return. The crisis, this oddly abstract word that has almost mutated into a running gag, has changed us and all the areas of our life. And who says that this situation is an exception and not the status quo that we should start becoming accustomed to?

Yet that would mean capitulating to the conditions — and that is not an option for any but a few people. Instead, most are trying to change something. Perhaps the most topical example is the march of ten thousand people from Kosovo to Germany. People — often not even the poorest — set out to seek their fortune somewhere else. These are primarily well educated young people, who emigrated from the country where one earns less with a college degree than behind the counter of a fast food chicken snack shop.

The people from the Hof Collective, for example, glean and sell old seeds, among other things — also to resist the food industry, which seeks to prohibit the distribution of certain types of seed. More because it is required of them than due to their own motivation, in Rules of the Game by Claudine Bories and Patrice Chagnard young adults find themselves in a vocational counseling agency. Except for a few telephone conversations, they have no contact with friends or family — if they even have any.

It is not an easy life, but for those who choose this monotonous existence, in any case it seems to be the better choice. So after watching the films, it can be stated that people are too often confronted with the limits of this system, but fortunately people can find all kinds of possibilities for getting around them. Lina Dinkla Gloria is one of the Hi, Are You Alone?

Lina Dinkla Lolita hates to smile. They have no qualifications. They are looking for work. Through this apprenticeship, the film reveals the absurdity of these new rules of the game. In null Komma nichts liegt der Fisch stapelweise in Kartons auf Paletten. During endless summer days, a ship relentlessly crisscrosses the shoals. Caught up in an industrial pace, and exposed to the dangers of deep-sea fishing, about thirty men work flat out for a few tons of fish.

Fishing season after fishing season, what brings these men back to this risky life? During his studies in Brittany, David Kremer developed a preference for maritim settings: Da ist das Wieserhoisl in der Steiermark, ein Hofkollektiv mit rund zehn Bewirtschaftern. Ute, die sich selbst weniger als Aussteigerin denn als Einsteigerin versteht, versucht irgendwo mitten in Portugal weitestgehend auf technische Annehmlichkeiten zu verzichten. We meet Ute, Wim, and the Wieserhoislers, who have all taken a big step towards living by their own beliefs and desires.

We learn what their daily lives outside the norm are like, how utopias become actual places, and why there is no dropping out of society. She works in the fields of visual art, performance, and film. Me, the big bad wolf and the radical sense of freedom , short doc , Von hier aus Beyond Elsewhere, Geschichten lesbischer Un- Sichtbarkeit im Wien der 50er und 60er Jahre amorous, antiquated, audacious.

Stories of lesbian in visibility in Vienna in the 50s and 60s, co-directed by Cordula Thym, , doc , Von hier aus Beyond Elsewhere, Im Sommer formulierte die Weimarer Verfassung in Art. Die anhaltende Wirtschaftskrise macht Wohnraum weiterhin zu einem beliebten Spekulations- und Anlageobjekt. Aufgrund der begrenzten Bettenzahl spielen sich vor einer Notschlafstelle in Lausanne in den Wintermonaten allabendlich dramatische Szenen ab.

Frauenfiguren in Lessings Komödien

As a refuge and primeval architecture at once, it stands for the primal human need for protection and individual creative expression. Like food and clothing, housing is one of the indispensable basic needs. In the summer of , Art. The claim to suitable living space was anchored in Art. According to this, state authorities are obligated to ensure the availability of suitable living space as far as possible. A survey by the British daily newspaper The Guardian in shows, however, that in Europe roughly eleven million residences — 3. The ongoing economic crisis continues to make living space a popular object for speculation and investment.

The award-winning Swiss filmmaker Fernand Melgar takes an unsparing look at the homeless in his home country in his current documentary film The Shelter. Due to the limited number of beds, dramatic scenes take place every evening in the winter in front of a homeless shelter in Lausanne. The residents of the ESSO-Buildings in Hamburg also fight to preserve their residential block, which is in the way for an investor, in the long-term documentation Buy buy St. In this film the Austrian director investigates the relationship of the residents to this icon of architectural modernism under historical monument protection.

In keinem anderen Land Europas wurden in den er-Jahren so viele Wohnungen gebaut wie in Spanien, Banken vergaben freigiebig Kredite, das Baugewerbe boomte — bis die Immobilienblase platzte und die noch immer andauernde Weltwirtschaftskrise einleitete. Besonders schwer davon betroffen: Alongside other families, they decided to occupy an empty apartment block and fight for the human right to a home.

She supports victims of the Spanish economic crisis and fights against the suffering caused by the banks and the current political system. They are The Resistance. She has worked in the fields of journalism, literature, and film. Lotte Schreiber It is winter at an emergency shelter for the homeless in Lausanne. Every night at the door of this little-known basement facility the same entry ritual takes place, resulting in confrontations, which can sometimes turn violent. Melgar has produced over twenty well-received documentaries.

Special Flight received more than thirty international awards and won the Crossing Europe Award European Documentary in Today, the houses are gone. Also gone are the name-giving petrol station, the music clubs, the motel, and the tenants — in short: Over the past years, they have collaborated on various film projects. Caledonia Dreaming , short doc , A lles muss raus! Lotte Schreiber In the s, the Werkbund architectural association stood for a new kind of functional design, sober and unadorned, but meeting residential needs.

The individual was to be the guiding criterion for the structure, resulting in a relationship between form and living consistently identical to space and need. Heidrun Holzfeind realizes a form of architectural measurement that is expressed through the biographies of the inhabitants residing in the settlement. In this way, the film ultimately delivers forms positioned in relation to life.

Her works have been shown and awarded at international venues. Up to three thousand people can live on 15 floors of the building. The lifts only stop every three floors so the residents must go through a maze of corridors and stairs in order to get to their flats. The main characters of the documentary are people living in Superjednostka and going through important moments of their lives there.

This is where their emotions throb, their expectations engender, and their desires come true We open only a few of them. Superunit premiered at DOK Leipzig in Superjednostka Superunit, , short doc. Loznitsa is considered an extremely multifaceted and productive director, who was already awarded prizes right from the beginning of his career and whose work was shown internationally at leading film festivals at a very early stage. His work includes short films, mid-length films and full-length films — all of them visually stunning and promising a cinematic experience of a very unusual kind.

Loznitsa is hard to categorize in terms of film concept as well: The content of his work ranges from contemporary history themes including the Second World War, the Soviet era all the way to everyday observations and portrayals of life in Russia today. Bei genauem Hinsehen sind immer noch.

A little boy and a girl are playing in a meadow in a park. The light is bright and friendly, the pictures are in black and white, the shadows lie gently on the ground, birds chirp in the trees. Everything indicates an ideal summer day in Riga, nothing should overshadow the good mood. The park is simultaneously a Jewish cemetery, where the communities of Riga have buried their dead since Following the invasion of the Germans in World War Two, the cemetery became a mass grave; under the Communist regime the tombstones were used as building material, and after this area became an urban recreational area, which Sergei Loznitsa shows in his film.

At a closer look, there are still traces of former destruction to be found, and so we are. Insofern passt dieser historische Film sehr gut in das Gesamtwerk von Loznitsa, der lange Zeit vor allem dokumentarisch gearbeitet und mit Schastye Moe seinen ersten Spielfilm vorgelegt hat. Because of his birth in Belarus, his young years in the Ukrainian capital of Kiev, his film studies in Moscow, and later documentary works in St. Petersburg before moving to Berlin in , he is also personally familiar with these three successor states to the Soviet Union. If the conceptual documentary film The Old Jewish Cemetery and the feature film In the Fog have something in common, then one would have to speak first of the unusual photography.

Loznitsa is an aesthete par excellence, searching for an image language with a depth of focus, which combines elements of the panorama with allegorical strategies, in which the concrete image refers to larger contexts. In the Fog begins with a masterly long take of the execution of several partisans, which is reminiscent of Tarkovsky in the density of its details and the linking of various commonplace and metaphysical aspects, but then switches into a three-person drama in open nature and ends on a tragic-absurd note. Due to the events in the Ukraine, it was demonstrated to Europe again in that the history of World War Two is by no means over, but still continues to serve as a background for the interpretation of current events.

In this story about a truck driver in the Russian province, the War already comes up as an old man recalls his return in , a sobering experience that has nothing at all to do with the official heroic mythology of the great patriotic war. In My Joy, Loznitsa sketches a depressing image of life in the back country of a historical former major power. As in In the Fog, here too the sublime and indifferent nature filmed by the Romanian cameraman Oleg Mutu forms a striking opposite to the need and the violence among human beings. It also forms the background for a series of documentary films, in which Loznitsa shows people in exposed areas and how they cope with life: The two films about psychiatric institutions in Russia Settlement and The L etter can also be seen in this context, and in Portrait the consistent photographic interest is imbued with.

Jahrhundert besonders intensiv sowohl unter faschistischen wie auch unter sozialistischen Verbrechen zu leiden hatten. Mutu aufgenommene erhabene und indifferente Natur einen markanten Gegensatz zu der Not und der Gewalt unter den Menschen. Loznitsa hat mehrfach mit Archivmaterial aus der Sowjetunion gearbeitet.

In Predstavlenye sind am deutlichsten die Hoffnungen erkennbar, die sich einmal auf das Projekt des kommunistischen Aufbaus richteten: Er montiert Material aus der Zeit, in der Leningrad durch die deutsche Armee eingeschlossen war. The early films often deal with this in one way or another. These are images that were originally supposed to serve a propagandist intention, but appear as liberated from the ideological context with Loznitsa. With his incisive dubbing and the soundtrack of Baltic ballads and polkas, he makes Socialism come paradoxically to life, no longer as an encumbrance of two or three generations, which will therefore never arrive in the present, but rather as a possibility of perhaps being able to deal with this legacy differently from what is prescribed by allencompassing capitalism and the neo-imperial politics of Russia under Putin.

Loznitsa has worked several times with archive material from the Soviet Union. In Revue the hopes are most clearly recognizable that were once directed to the project of building up a Communist structure: The soul, that is the pathos that seems to inhere to Russian culture, the feeling that is recognizable in dances and songs, in which the hard work at the blast furnaces is balanced out. With Blockade Loznitsa returned to an earlier key scene in the battle of the systems. He edits in material from the time when Leningrad was besieged by the German army.

We see images of a city defending itself, in the end there are fireworks. For the devastating starvation during the blockade there are hardly any images, with the exception of a longer sequence showing how corpses are disposed of — they are taken to the collection point on sleds; finally we look right into the face of a dead person.

Leningrad is a mass grave, and yet the city survived. The people who can be seen in these last images of Blockade are at least apparently related to the people in the film L andscape, which Loznitsa shot at bus stops in Russia. The camera pans continuously to the right, carries out circular movements, in which it captures quite a bit, as though by accident: Zu sehen sind Bilder einer wehrhaften Stadt, am Ende gibt es ein Feuerwerk. Die Menschen, die in diesen letzten Bildern von Blokada zu sehen sind, sind den Menschen in dem Film Peyzazh, in dem Loznitsa Aufnahmen an Bushaltestellen in Russland machte, zumindest dem Augenschein nach verwandt.

Wie in allen Filmen von Loznitsa ist auch hier die Tonspur von elementarer Bedeutung: One of his most recent works, The L etter, in which he deals with psychiatric patients again, recalls in its photographic quality films by Alexander Sokurov, who could be called the painter among Russian filmmakers.

Loznitsa frequently alternates between detailed precision in the depth of focus and blurred surreality, thus conveying the impression that there could be two documentary realisms: This procedure is especially evident in The Train Stop, in which people are seen, who have fallen asleep waiting at train stations. We see them from the outside, yet we are strangely drawn into the unconsciousness of their posture. The approximateness of the images and the train station sounds from offscreen result, as a whole, in a strong metaphor for a world of transition, as it was undoubtedly subjectively felt to be in St.

In Loznitsa began filming protests against the Yanukovych regime in the Maidan in Kiev. The result was a distanced documentary film about a popular revolt, which interested Loznitsa initially due to the diversity of the rallies and the logistics. He shows how during the weeks of protest many simple people took the stage and argued in their own words for the changes demanded in the Maidan.

Frauen Verstehen - Neue Deutsche Filme 2016 (Komödie)

Many proponents of the Ukrainian revolts found Maidan distanced, but Loznitsa insisted here too on his own, artistic truth and indeed captured much of the dramatic mood of those days without relying on any gestures of authenticity, reportage television, or smartphone documentarism. The reason why the film is outstanding is. What we hear are scraps of conversations from these situations of waiting; we are given insights into family situations, a man explaining to his wife that he no longer wants to be nice to her, but instead wants to show her who the man in the house is.

Allusions to political processes and corruption encounter general resignation, the young men have red cheeks from beer and the cold. This is the image of a Russia we think we know, stuck deep in situations that seem not to have changed for decades or even longer. The limping figure leaving the picture in the last scene could be from the nineteenth century without the bicycle, a serf plodding tediously through life.

The danger of aestheticizing misery is banished here through the relation of image and sound: It is only recently that Loznitsa has occasionally taken up projects that have nothing to do with his Eastern European origins. That has to do with his growing success in the international festival landscape, which brings him into contact with all kinds of projects. Most recently, a German film subsidy approved funding for a project with the title Austerlitz, where there is talk of a meditation on a concentration camp and the culture of remembrance.

Loznitsa has already contributed several crucial works to this culture and proven that the medium of film is excellently suited to represent historical complexity. This movie is about one day on the construction site. To the casual observer, it looks like not much is happening at the site, but in reality a very efficient process takes place below the surface. And by the end of the day, the house is ready. This film is about the power of a group of trained professionals united by a common goal. L ife, Autumn was filmed in rural Russia, near the city of Smolensk. It shows a small village, where all young people are gone and only older people are left.

There is shortage of basic material necessities, but at the same time the villagers seem to be in possession of the core values of life. We observe them as they speak and sing about their village, friends, family, children, love, death, and happiness. Was wird sie aufwecken? Speeding trains slice through the silence of the small train stop. The whistle on the locomotive and the thunder of the wheels disappear into the night, but fail to wake up people at the station.

People just continue to sleep. In this film, we are brought to a remote train station deep in the Russian woods. The station, a small wooden building, sits silently, surrounded only by snow and train tracks. Inside, everyone is asleep. The camera pans slowly over the sleeping bodies. Some are leaning backwards, others are hunched over. Occasionally, someone moves a hand, coughs, turns. At one point, an elderly woman seems to wake up, only to look around and fall back into slumber.

Without narration, and bathed in a ghostly light, the film is in its own serene way, gripping Why is everyone asleep? What is everyone waiting for? Petersburg Documentary Film Studio. Ein Tag in einer russischen Siedlung: In idyllischer und friedvoller Umgebung arbeiten und leben diese Menschen in schierer Harmonie. A master of detailed, minimalist observation, Loznitsa introduces us to a rural settlement where the residents are seemingly involved in everyday farm work — harvesting fields, chopping wood, working at a sawmill, maintaining the property.

Yet as we watch the workers, we notice strange inconsistencies in their routines — the wood never appears to be cut, the grain never harvested — and it soon becomes apparent that what we are witnessing is neither a farm nor some sort of labor commune. Gradually, we come to understand the workers, are in fact, patients. Their daily chores, though earnestly performed, serve only therapeutic purposes. A year from winter to winter, between the sky and water. Men and woman were assigned their places, they stand on them without a single move. They look and wait at the peripheries of their lives, faces, hands, eyes, clothes.

Every one of them holds an attribute of their work, even the slightest detail suddenly becomes a sociological fact. The film introduces the situations of long looks of people, who do not move. This movie is a collection of still pictures of residents of the Russian countryside.

Not a single word. Only perseverant looks into the camera. In einem kleinen Dorf warten Menschen an einer Bushaltestelle. Auch durch die Bewegung der Kamera werden die Menschen und der sie umgebende Ort sukzessive zu einem diffusen Ganzen vermischt. Harsh, self-consuming stylistic exercise introduces nearly a single moving scene, through which the winter landscaped curled in itself seems to watch those who really want to see it. A church with the plaster flaking off, wooden houses at the edge of a field, a road leading out of a provincial Russian town, and finally — human faces covering it all, turning together inside an artful laboratory of a single movement.

Layered sounds of the square, dogs and birds, train and people, of all these moving things, create a unique atmosphere of a place covered with snow, where dozens of passengers wait at a bus stop. Sentences are evaporating in the freezing air, people are swaying, characters are talking, touching each other with their voices, their sounds being so close, their sounds being the only thing that can define the variable borders of bodies within the peopled solitude of this long panorama. Ein Tag in einer Stahl- und Tonfabrik im Ural, die sich irgendwie aus dem Alles ist in Bewegung und steht dennoch zur gleichen Zeit still.

Stunningly photographed in rich sacral tones, Factory takes the viewer on a visually mesmerizing tour through the belly of an old Soviet industrial plant. Told without voiceover, explanatory subtitles or any other contextualizing material, the Russian docu Blockade looks unlikely to show up on the History Channel as it stands now. Nevertheless, this absorbing account of the day siege of Leningrad now St. Culled from newsreel material, pic's visuals are grouped thematically to show different aspects of the Leningrad Blockade. Shots of burning and later devastated buildings are backed by a soundtrack of sirens and raging flames.

Sounds of soft weeping are matched to imagery of mass graves, which still have power to shock. So hat das Leben am Meer wohl schon immer ausgesehen. Oder ist die finale Einstellung als optimistisches Aufbrechen in einer erstarrten, festgefahrenen Situation zu verstehen? In A rtel, we follow a group of small black silhouettes on a wide white landscape with a couple of log cabins.

Beneath the snow and ice they are walking on, fish are swimming. In any case, the men spend a lot of time dealing with some fishing nets. If they did not use a chainsaw to make a hole in the ice, the film could just as well have been made 80 years ago. The documentary seems to say that life by the sea has always looked like this and it always will. Or is the final shot, when the ice breaks and the water flows, a reference to the old Soviet masters and an optimistic symbol of imminent change in a frozen social situation?

Just before winter cloaks everything in the Arctic night, a few hours of daylight linger in late autumn in the village of Sumskoy Posad, one thousand kilometers north of Saint Petersburg, in Karelia, on the shores of the White Sea. Linked to the rest of the country by a vague muddy track and a stretch of railway line, the village lives in a suspended and mysterious dimension.

This is the Russia of endless forests and potato fields. A few robust and uncompromising characters work calmly there, driven by no vital needs. This is a still happy and cold Russia. Akribisch seziert Loznitsas Revue den Alltag der Sowjets. Industrie und Landwirtschaft werden schlicht inszeniert, tagespolitisches Geschehen medienwirksam wiedergegeben und das Leben an sich zelebriert.

Revue is based on archive propaganda newsreels produced in the USSR in the 50s and 60s. The film shows the almost forgotten side of the Soviet times and the way of thinking at that period. It explores the life of people all across the vast expanse of the Soviet Motherland, though full of hardship, deprivation, and absurd rituals, but at the same time illuminated by the glorious shining of the communist illusion. Seen from these dual historical and contemporary perspectives, Revue is both a nostalgic and instructive look back at a communist past that represents social engineering on a grand, and frightening, scale.

Georgy landet auf einem verlassenen Feld. Sein Lastwagen ist zusammengebrochen, es wird Nacht. Russia, present day, summer: Truck driver Georgy picks up his latest load and heads off for the motorway. Along his journey, Georgy encounters all sorts of enigmatic characters: An an old man tells Georgy the sobering story of his return from the German front in and disappears thereupon.

Having driven into a traffic jam, a teenage prostitute offers to show him a short-cut — along with her services — and abandons him at a village market. Finally, Georgy ends up lost in a field. By now, night has fallen and his truck has broken down. Three tramps invite Georgy for a meal by the fire and offer him a drink. However, their meal ends violently and abruptly. Das Filmmaterial zu Pismo entstand bereits Anfang der er-Jahre. Und dennoch, der Ort an sich verwehrt sich der Artikulation menschlicher Stimmen.

A remote village in the Northwest of Russia. A mental asylum is located in an old wooden house. The place and its inhabitants seem to be untouched by civilization. In this pristine setting, no articulate human voice is heard, and pain is muted. Man sagt, der Schutzpatron hilft, verlorene Dinge wiederzufinden. One will be able to do even worse tomorrow, invisibly, in silence, more quickly and without any bloodshed, by attacking the computer and informational networks on which the entire life social, economic, military, and so on of a "great nation," of the greatest power on earth, depends.

This is the tip of the iceberg, keep looking, keep publishing. Pig Business criticises the practices of the world's largest pork processor, Smithfield Foods, claiming it is responsible for environmental pollution and health problems among residents near its factories. A sample of drinking water from a well near the site had levels of contamination times higher than the maximum limits recommended by the World Health Organization.

In , a day before the 25th anniversary of the disaster, Centre for Science and Environment CSE , a Delhi based pollution monitoring lab, released latest tests from a study showing that groundwater in areas even three km from the factory up to The Blue Mask - Lou Reed - www. But not a good one. It seems important to find ways of reminding ourselves that most "familiarity" is meditated and delusive. Nuclear weapons and TV have simply intensified the consequences of our tendencies, upped the stakes. One of the things that makes Wittgenstein a real artist to me is that he realized that no conclusion could be more horrible than solipsism.

Pleasure becomes a value, a teleological end in itself. It's probably more Western than U. Television is the way it is simply because people tend to be extremely similar.. I'm actually editing most of my videos, so i'm using private images now only, all of them from my own collection of antique photos and books. Justitia, the Roman goddess of Justice, who is equivalent to the Greek goddess Dike is an allegorical personification of the moral force in judicial systems. Depiction The personification of justice balancing the scales of truth and fairness dates back to the Goddess Maat, and later Isis, of ancient Egypt.

The Hellenic deities Themis and Dike were later godesses of justice. Themis was the embodiment of divine order, law, and custom, in her aspect as the personification of the divine rightness of law. However, a more direct connection is to Themis' daughter Dike, who was portrayed carrying scales. Dithyrambs 17, 24ff greek. Whatever the all-powerful fate of the gods [25] has granted for us, and however the scale of Justice inclines, we shall fulfill our appointed destiny when it comes.

Dithyrambs 17, 24ff english. Ancient Rome adopted the image of a female goddess of justice, which it called Justitia. Since Roman times, Justitia has frequently been depicted carrying scales and a sword, and wearing a blindfold. Her modern iconography frequently adorns courthouses and courtrooms, and conflates the attributes of several goddesses who embodied Right Rule for Greeks and Romans, blending Roman blindfolded Fortuna fate with Hellenistic Greek Tyche luck , and sword-carrying Nemesis vengeance. Justitia is most often depicted with a set of scales typically suspended from her left hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case's support and opposition.

She is also often seen carrying a double-edged sword in her right hand, symbolizing the power of Reason and Justice, which may be wielded either for or against any party. Since the 15th century, Lady Justice has often been depicted wearing a blindfold. The blindfold represents objectivity, in that justice is or should be meted out objectively, without fear or favour, regardless of identity, money, power, or weakness; blind justice and impartiality.

The earliest Roman coins depicted Justitia with the sword in one hand and the scale in the other, but with her eyes uncovered. Instead of using the Janus approach, many sculptures simply leave out the blindfold altogether. Justizia mit Augenbinde fotocent. Kriminalgericht Moabit, Moabit, Berlin qype. Mehr als hundert Jahre wird in diesem sicherlich bekanntesten deutschen Gericht, das den Namen des Stadtteils Moabit in ganz Deutschland bekannt gemacht hat, schon Recht gesprochen. Ein Jahr nach dem Die Geschichte des Kriminalgerichts spiegelt die gesellschaftliche Entwicklung wider: Bei der Justizreform vom Vorbild war die friderizianische Architektur des Die imposante Architektur sollte die Erhabenheit des Rechts deutlich machen.

Bei seiner Fertigstellung im Jahre und Einweihung am Ebenfalls eingebaut wurden eine eigene Wasserversorgung mit Wasserturm und eine eigene Telefonanlage. Die andauernde Raumnot zwang zu weiteren Neubauten,, mit denen am Die Fertigstellung erfolgte am 7. She is depicted as Astraia constellation Virgo , the goddess of justice, with the usual attributes of a star-god: Deutsche Strafrechtsliteratur chronologisch geordnet von bis She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia "order" and Eirene "peace":.

She ruled over human justice, while her mother Themis ruled over divine justice. Her opposite was adikia "injustice": The later art of rhetoric treated the personification of abstract concepts as an artistic device, which devolved into the allegorizing that Late Antiquity bequeathed to patristic literature. Soeben startete ein Projekt mit acht weiteren Nationalbibliotheken, die, ausgestattet mit einem Budget von 5,4 Mio. Remember that cryptic scripture in the Bible that states, "Unless a grain of wheat falls to the ground and dies?

Whether you are a native of Hawaii, have visited her unforgettable shores before or are a stranger to the Islands I am certain this will enlighten you. In a day when kingdoms seem to rise and fall almost over night and the news of such places as Egypt grip our attention - this story of one of our great states and it's imminent future is sure to encourage you.

There is no other explanation except God's hand that can catapult someone from virtual obscurity on a far away Island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, raise them up to such a stature to reach the world a million times over and this is after they have died. Not only has Israel's songs been heard all over the world and continue to rise on the charts every year since his untimely death in they have been heard in outer-space on NASA missions and have become a proverbial sound to millions.

Israel Kamakwiwo'le is a seed in the soil of Hawaii's posterity and future. Iz's first album has now went platinum multiple times since it's release in The day I arrived in Kona, HI. Hawaii's role in the nations has only just begun and Germany is simply one of them. God is about to ratify Hawaii to such an extent that She will be honored and needed more than any other time in its rich and illustrious history. As Hawaii faces her future the winds of change are beginning to blow in gale force.

Aloha in the Hawaiian language means affection, love, peace, compassion and mercy. The inherent anointing on Hawaii is going to be a crucial part in breaking the spirit of death and tyranny in many volatile parts of the world such as The Middle East and North Korea. Hawaii will be a critical "ground zero" in world missions eclipsing any of her previous efforts. The sons and daughters of Hawaii will be one the world's last great missionary campaigns. They will carry the "Balm of Gilead" and their "Aloha" will impact the hardest and most resistant nations in the world.

They will certainly be God's fire to melt hearts of stone. Not since the days of Hawaai's monarchy has their been a voice from the Islands that has been heard on such a world-wide scale. Israel is only a "seed"; a voice coming from Hawaii that will shape future world-events rivaling any other nation before it.

Hawaii's future forecast is historic breakthrough on a scale never seen aforetime. Iz became a "voice of Hawaii" and his death and consequential seed is about to multiply and impact the world in more ways than ever imaginable. Like those biblical characters mentioned above, Hawaii is indeed "getting back Her voice" on a global scale. In her book "Hawaii's Story" her prophetic letter to the world is being fulfilled.

She writes, "My great-grandaunt Queen Kapiloani plucked the sacred berries from the borders of the volcano, descended to the boiling lava, and there, while singing Christian hymns, threw them into the lake of fire breaking forever the power of Pele the fire goddess Jesus was silent before His accusers as well and dumbfouned his enemies because of it. Jeremiah is much like Hawaii now when he wrote in chapter It cannot be held back any longer.

I played Iz's music in every church I visited with that very message in Kona, Kapaau, Hilo, and Pahoa - I prophesied the greatest days of Hawaii's future lie ahead. The song from Israel "Iz", "E Ala E", became our anthem and the lyrics are as prophetic today as when they were written on the Album with the same title in E Ala E means: God is calling the Hawaiian people to Arise and "wake up" to the call of God and begin to blaze a trail of reformation and revival around the world. God said this last week during my visit, "As the star led Kings to the manger - so will Hawaii be like a star leading Kingdoms to Me now".

Hawaii is the epicenter. It is the "Hokulea" which means, "the Star of Happiness". He also reminded me of the mysterious oil that continues to glisten on the waters at Pearl Harbor as a haunting reminder of that fateful day in God said to me,"My anointing on Hawaii and its people is like that oil on the waters of Pearl Harbor, it will never leave and My purposes for Hawaii and the nations. Hawaii is "Ground Zero" for much of the world's evangelization and is taking on a much larger role in the coming days. Some of the cities of influence and social economic power in the Pacific Rim as listed in Wikipedia are: Many people are unaware that Israel was saved later in his life and that he had such strong convictions.

See the link to video below. I am honored to be a witness of it. But if it dies, it produces many others and yields a rich harvest The Wonderful World was ready to be released and debuted at 1 on the Billboard World Chart and remained in the top 5 slots of that chart for 2 years. In April , "Over the Rainbow" entered the UK charts at 68, and eventually climbed to 46, spending 10 weeks in the Top over a 2 year period.

In October , following its use on a TV advertisement it hit 1 on the German singles chart, selling , copies. As of November 1, , "Over the Rainbow" peaked at No. It also peaked at No. His koa wood coffin lay in state at the Capitol building in Honolulu. He was the third person in Hawaiian history to be awarded this honor, and the only one who was not a government official. Approximately ten thousand people attended the funeral. Built for middle and upper middle-class white residents between the mids and the First World War, the area achieved its greatest fame during the s and s when a large number of black professionals, active in law, business, medicine and the arts, took residence here.

The Historic District consists of buildings, primarily long rows of well-preserved townhouses, as well as finely detailed apartment buildings. The boundaries extend irregularly from the north side of th Street to the south side of th Street, and generally from the west side of Convent Avenue to the east side of St. Nicholas Avenue, and in many cases as far east as the west side of Edgecombe Avenue. A cable car railway built along Amsterdam Avenue in the late s spurred growth in the area - first, with single-family houses at St.

Nicholas Avenue, followed by longer rows of speculatively-built residences on th and th Streets, as well as Convent Avenue. Most of these rowhouses were designed by New York architects specializing in residential construction, such as A. Jennings, Henri Fouchaux, and Frederick P. These groups of rowhouses were frequently treated as block-long compositions in which the various materials and architectural features were arranged to create a distinct sense of place. Built in a succession of popular historical styles, these private residences display remarkable neo-Grec, Romanesque and Renaissance Revival style details, including elaborate brickwork, stone carvings, and metalwork.

During the first decades of the twentieth century, following the opening of the City College of New York and the IRT subway station at Broadway and th Street, apartment houses were erected along St. Nicholas Avenue, and later, Convent Avenue. Rising as many as seven stories, the twenty-three multiple dwellings in the Historic District include the exuberantly detailed Beaux Arts-style St. Nicholas Avenue and the. During the mids, the area became known as Sugar Hill. For blacks living on the Harlem plain, the elevated residential area to the west became increasingly desirable. It was perceived as a place where life was "sweet," where residents enjoyed prosperous and comfortable lives.

By the mids, the apartment and rowhouses were occupied by successful blacks, including such noted cultural figures as the minister of the Abyssinian Baptist Church, Adam Clayton Powell, who lived in the Garrison Apartments at Convent Avenue, and the acclaimed novelist Ralph Ellison, who wrote Invisible Man while residing on St. Throughout the first half of the seventeenth century, the West India Company encouraged the development of New Netherland through generous land grants to settlers.

While many early citizens preferred the security and convenience of New Amsterdam at Manhattan's fortified southern tip, a small number chose to establish farms in the island's wooded north. In , the town of Nieuw Haarlem was officially created by the colony's governor Peter Stuyvesant, incorporating "the land of Jochem Pietersen, deceased, and those which are adjoining it.

In the decades that followed, however, the two villages came to be considered one. Over the past four centuries, this area has been known by a succession of names that refer to its elevated geographic position. Toward the end of the seventeenth century, the hills west of Harlem's central plain became known as Harlem Heights.

During the Revolutionary War, this area became the site of an important early victory for the American troops. Temporary fortifications were constructed throughout the "Heights of Harlem," as far north as th Street. Washington set up his headquarters in Mount Morris, an abandoned summer villa built by the British military officer Roger Morris in a designated New York City Landmark. British forces pursued Washington and several violent clashes occurred during late September and early October , between what is now th and th Streets.

Although the American victory was less than decisive, this was the first instance in which the Continental Army had equaled their much- better trained adversary. In late October , Washington's troops evacuated to White Plains. Prior to the American Revolution, few roads passed through northern Manhattan. In a new approach to Fort Washington originally called Fort Knyphausen, between st and th Streets was opened, extending the Bloomingdale Road northeast to meet the Kingsbridge Road at what is now th Street and St. The site of this T-shaped intersection was owned by Dr.

Samuel and Mary Bradhurst, who acquired it from the estate of Charles Aitken in Born in , Bradhurst was trained as a surgeon and during the American Revolution served at the Battles of Princeton and Brandy wine. In , he sold sixteen acres in Harlem Heights to Alexander Hamilton whose thirty-two acre estate would extend from what is now Hamilton Place on the west, to Hamilton Terrace on the east, and from th to th Streets. Hamilton's property had panoramic views and rich soil for farming and gardening.

Near rd Street, the former Secretary of the United States Treasury erected a twelve-room house, with large porches, designed by the architect John McComb in the Federal style. Hamilton found life in Harlem Heights both pleasant and convenient. A place of escape and refuge, he described his country home as "a sweet asylum from care and pain. North of the Grange stretched the one-hundred-and-ten acre Bradhurst estate. Close to the property's summit, near what is now Convent Avenue and th Street, the Bradhursts built an impressive Federal-style mansion, named "Pinehurst.

Three generations of the Bradhurst family lived here, enjoying sweeping views across the Bronx, New Jersey, and. Through the s, residents could observe the "thrilling" activity on "Breakneck Hill," a steeply inclined section of the Kingsbridge Road also known as Harlem Lane located near th Street, midway between the north end of Central Park and High Bridge ; addition, , a designated New York City Landmark. Teams of champion trotters were a frequent sight, and Harper's Weekly, described this stretch of the Kingsbridge Road as having "succeeded Seventh Avenue as a speeding-ground.

Harlem Heights began to lose its rural character in the late s with the construction of the Croton Water Aqueduct. Tenth Avenue, which was yet to be opened, was chosen as one of the main supply routes through northern Manhattan. The impact of the New York State-financed construction project was significant, causing members of the Bradhurst family "considerable vexation. While the pipes were buried, their large diameter resulted in the road being raised by more than ten feet, creating a ridge to the west of the estate.

Not only was drainage in the Bradhurst gardens seriously disrupted, but views west toward the Hudson River were permanently obstructed. In an era when few streets in northern Manhattan were passable, or well-maintained, the newly graded Tenth Avenue became a bustling transit route. By the late s, the Historic District was commonly called Washington Heights. John Maunsell Bradhurst, the son of Samuel Bradhurst, signed correspondence with this address, evoking the area's and his father's connection to the first President of the United States.

During these years, the area continued to lose its pastoral character and in he divided his property and began to sell lots east of the Kingsbridge Road, near what would later become Edgecombe Avenue. In the family departed for Europe, and by they settled permanently in England. Sales of Bradhurst-owned lots increased after the Civil War, fueled, in part, by proposals of the Board of Commissioners of Central Park to abandon the old winding Bloomingdale Road and lay out the "Boulevard," today known as Broadway. The closing of the historic Bloomingdale Road, which sliced diagonally to the northeast, from what is now Broadway and th Street toward St.

Nicholas Avenue and th Street, created a long uninterrupted block between th and th Streets for residential development. Despite the Panic of , a period of economic stagnation in New York City, real estate sales in Washington Heights continued. In Henry and Anna T. Nicoll purchased several large tracts from Henry M.

These sales anticipated construction of the "elevated road" on Eighth Avenue now Frederick Douglass Boulevard , which began service to th and th Streets in These transit improvements made the area attractive to both developers and new residents. From the new station at Eighth Avenue and th Street, commuters reached their homes by ascending the steep incline of th Street. The street would become a major cross-town thoroughfare, where rowhouses, multiple dwellings, and commercial buildings were constructed.


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With elevated railroads serving Second, Third, and Eighth Avenues by , areas that had once been open farmland quickly gave way to speculative construction, including long rows of single-family houses and multiple dwellings of varying quality. Access to the neighborhood improved with the construction of a short-lived cable-car railway on Tenth now Amsterdam Avenue in the late s. King's Handbook of New York. This ambitious scheme, begun in and completed in , was conceived to improve vehicular circulation in northern Manhattan, linking the Bronx to north Harlem and Washington Heights.

Real estate interest in Washington Heights, consequently, surged in the late s. A block- by-block survey published in the Real Estate Record and Guide concluded that there was "probably no finer residence section on the Heights than St. Nicholas Avenue and St.

Nicholas Place, between th and th Streets. Several examples survive, including 10 St. Nicholas Place, at th Street, a Romanesque Revival-style limestone house commissioned by circus impresario James A. Beginning in the mids, the Historic District evolved from a rural retreat of widely spaced free-standing mansions to a middle to upper-middle-class neighborhood of attached single- family homes.

The earliest speculative residences to be constructed were designed by Thomas Minot T. Clark, a Boston architect and former associate of the influential architect Henry Hobson Richardson. On the west side of St. Nicholas Avenue, between th and th Streets, Clark planned four houses for the builder William Thompson, of which three were built, and two survive at and St. These imposing facades were faced with rugged Manhattan schist, yellow terra cotta, and wood shingles. Each residence featured picturesque massing, including domed or conical turrets, curved bays, straight and box stoops, as well as steep chimneys with elaborate molded brickwork.

During the late s, development patterns became more complex and ambitious, attracting seasoned speculators who assembled larger lots for more lucrative residential projects. In contrast to the Hamilton Heights Historic District and Extension, where much of the development during this period was controlled by restrictive covenants imposed by William H. In front they were set back from the sidewalk only enough to accommodate a straight or box stoop above a raised basement.

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A ground floor entrance, which was convenient for deliveries, was located beneath the stoop. At the rear of this floor was the kitchen which opened to the garden. Front and back parlors were located on the first floor, with family bedrooms and bathrooms above. Most rowhouses were built to the side lot line, sharing party walls with adjacent houses.

This strategy saved space and lowered building costs so that the cost of a single unit in a large row was lower than that of a free-standing house with the same dimensions and materials. Most were constructed with load-bearing walls clad in various materials of contrasting color and texture, including brick in various shades, brownstone, limestone, and terra cotta.

Speculative builders favored St. Nicholas Avenue for several reasons. Of the various streets in the neighborhood, it had greater width, was better known, and was conveniently located for residents traveling to and from the elevated railroad station at Eighth Avenue and th Street. Among these developers was George Daiker who built St. Nicholas Avenue in and St. Nicholas Avenue in The later and more elaborate project is one of the most impressive rows in the district, consisting of seven rock-faced limestone-fronted houses designed by A.

Jennings in the Romanesque Revival style. The towered end houses were built with. The residences had many attractive features, such as carved reliefs around the entrances, stained glass transoms, marble vestibules, as well as views from the rear yards and windows across central Harlem toward the Bronx and Long Island.

The flourishing neighborhood also offered opportunities to lesser-known architects. Rowhouse construction continued throughout the s, spreading west from St. Nicholas Avenue, across th and th Streets, and to the north. One of the most ambitious groups is located at 18 West th Street. Consisting of nine three-story houses, this Romanesque Revival style row is one of the longest in the district.

This limestone row is distinguished by the use of contrasting smooth and textured stone finishes, stained glass transoms, and carved stone reliefs. Among the various rowhouses included in the Historic District, those facing the intersection of Convent Avenue and th Street are particularly notable. Convent Avenue, which before abruptly ended at th Street, became an extremely desirable address in the early s.

From th Street north, it was entirely residential, lined with handsome private homes and churches, and later apartment buildings. At the corner of Convent Avenue and th Street are four sets of rowhouses by different architects that create a rare urban ensemble and a unique sense of place through the use of similar styles, materials, and scale.

While similar intersections often attracted religious or commercial use, or gave way to larger multiple dwellings, these four corners are notable for retaining their original residential scale. The earliest group, at Convent Avenue, stands at the northeast corner. The last group of houses to be built on the intersection was completed in Designed by the architect Henri Fouchaux, Convent Avenue consists of five Classical revival style townhouses. Two rows, at the intersection's southwest and northwest corners, were commissioned by Mary Cahill. This pattern is maintained to the east and west of Convent Avenue, where complimentary three-story single-family residences extend on the north side in both directions.

Active in New York City from the mids to the s, he specialized. These speculative projects were designed in Renaissance Revival style.

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His interest in the classical past is typical of this era, a period that many historians call the "American Renaissance. Dinkelberg's interest in Renaissance architecture is evident in his projects in the Historic District. Nicholas Avenue he designed two distinguished rows, including a full block of ten houses, between th and th Streets, and a row of four houses, on the east side, near th Street.

The first group, commissioned by William Broadbelt in , is one of the most impressive in the district. Designed as a single composition, it featured eight four-story residences with high stoops now removed and curved bays, flanked by a single five-story corner residence at either end. Reflecting current fashion, the corner buildings follow the recently introduced "American Basement Plan," whereby residents enter from a semi-circular portico at street level. In this handsome row Dinkelberg employed a variety of cladding materials: Indiana limestone, brownstone, terra cotta, and various colored bricks.

The Real Estate Record and Guide praised the overall effect, writing that these houses:. The style of the fronts is Italian Renaissance applied with skill and thorough knowledge to its purpose. The detail is characterized by refinement and excellence of execution. Such attention to detail was found throughout, including paneled halls and living areas, "kitchens as perfect as possible," and decorative iron fencing in the rear yards.

Dinkelberg's last project in Sugar Hill, West th Street, was also commissioned by Broadbelt. This Classical Revival style row, completed in , begins with a four-story corner building, facing St. Nicholas Avenue, followed by five brick and limestone-fronted houses that feature high stoops with stepped sidewalls and elaborate wrought-iron railings. Continuous cornices, expressed in limestone and pressed metal, extend across the facade, above the first and third stories. These residences form an ensemble with the end facades set at angles to the lot lines.

As the neighborhood's population grew, the area attracted a number of religious institutions. Located on th Street, at the northeast corner of Convent Avenue, this modest painted brick structure features a stepped gable and lancet windows. Matthew, one of the oldest Lutheran churches in the United States. Under pastor Otto Seiker, the church expanded, building a four-story limestone neo-Gothic style parish house and chapel on the adjacent lot John Boese, and establishing the Lutheran Hospital of Manhattan one block south at the northeast corner of Convent Avenue and th Street part of the Hamilton Heights Historic District.

A mix of middle- to upper-middle class white professionals were the earliest residents, as well as recent immigrants from Italy, Ireland, and Germany. The Real Estate Record and Guide claimed that the area:. To serve community needs, several social organizations were founded, including the Washington Heights Taxpayers Association, the Washington Heights Progressive Association, and the Heights Club. The latter group, a private men's club, was established in The clubhouse was located in a converted four-story Romanesque Revival style residence at St.

The club, which initially had more than one hundred members, celebrated its opening with an exhibition of paintings lent by the prominent collector Thomas B. During the early s, the New Croton Aqueduct was put into service, insuring future residents of northern Manhattan with an adequate fresh water supply. Plans for the New York City subway were approved by popular referendum in and construction commenced in March As originally planned, the IRT's northern terminus was located at th Street. Service began in October with a five cent fare and the promotional slogan "fifteen minutes to Harlem.

These civic improvements led to a dramatic increase in property values throughout the Manhattan's west side and in the Historic District. The earliest examples were built on or near the intersection of two major thoroughfares: Nicholas Avenue and th Street. The "Albertina," located at St. Nicholas Avenue, was the first, completed in Designed by the architect Theo dore E. Thompson for the developer Frederick H. Walker, this five story, eight- family brick-and-brownstone building has two distinct facades; the entrance to the apartments is on St.

Nicholas Avenue and the storefronts and service entrance face th Street. In subsequent years, two apartment buildings would be built on lots to the immediate west, West th Street and 11 West th Street. Ashley served as the designer and developer. The first building was. Both share similar neo-classical details and were planned to house as many as fifteen families. These larger buildings were served by elevators and featured light-colored stone or brick facades, reflecting the Beaux-Arts and "City Beautiful" movements.

The low height and neo-classical style of these buildings harmonized with the already existing rowhouses. Many were located on St. Nicholas Avenue, including the " Amaganset" at St. Nicholas Avenue, a twenty-four family apartment house designed by the residential specialist George F. Pelham in , and the "St. Nicholas Court," a sixty-two family apartment house at St. Nicholas Avenue, near th Street. The latter building was designed by the architect Henri Fouchaux in Among the various architects active in the Historic District, Fouchaux was the most prolific, designing five groups of rowhouses and two neo-classical style apartment buildings between and Nicholas Court" was one of his earliest multiple dwellings.

With a limestone front elevation less than twenty feet wide, and a rear brick and limestone facade spanning nearly one hundred and thirty feet, the developer was able to offer tenants both magnificent views and a prestigious St. Three years later, in , Fouchaux and the Central Building Improvement and Investment Company collaborated on a second project at St. As in their previous project, this six-story Renaissance Revival style apartment building was built on a L- shaped lot, extending east to Edgecombe Avenue. The wider of the two facades, facing St.


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Nicholas Avenue, is divided into seven bays that alternate between triple windows with splayed terra-cotta lintels and multistory arches. Within the five-story recessed arches, Fouchaux inserted a single window at each floor and fire escapes. A dramatic free-standing central arch, decorated with terra- cotta reliefs, spans the deep light court and connects the two wings. Above the arch are terra-cotta panels and a bracketed cornice with dentils that extends across the entire foot-wide elevation. A similar recessed arch, with windows and fire escapes, embellishes the rear facade, facing Edgecombe Avenue.

A similar emphasis on St. Nicholas Avenue was adopted by John P. Leo, who served as the architect and developer of "The Purling" at St. Throughout his forty-year career he was closely involved with the neighborhood's development. By he had begun to develop his own speculative projects, including a row of seven Renaissance Revival style houses at West th Street, a five-story Renaissance Revival style apartment building at West th Street, and the "Purling. Nicholas Court," which has two distinct but finished street facades, Leo treated Edgecombe Avenue as a rear facade, cladding it with unadorned red brick.

Nicholas Avenue, however, the French Renaissance Revival style front is quite elaborate, featuring impressive limestone entry piers and a prominent mansard roof with dormers. Leo moved his architectural office to the "Purling" in By , much of St. Nicholas and Edgecombe Avenues, as well as most of the lots on the side streets, had been developed with rowhouses and apartment buildings.

Of particular note are the "Holly Arms" and "Montauk Arms," a pair of identical six-story Renaissance Revival style apartment buildings at and West th Street. Both the "Holly Arms" and "Montauk Arms" are distinguished by their limestone bases, deep courtyard entry ways and prominent cornices. Convent Avenue was the last street within the Historic District to experience intensive development. In , four large corner apartment houses were constructed between th and th Streets. Only the last of these broke with the contemporary fashion for light-colored facades and neo-classical ornament.

Like the contemporaneous buildings on the campus of City College George B. During this era the neighborhood's population rapidly increased. To serve the new residents, two public institutions were built on th Street, west of Amsterdam Avenue: Broadway became the main shopping corridor with numerous entertainment venues clustered nearby, especially in the vicinity of the new IRT subway station.

Approved by the Board of Transportation in , the city-owned transit system included five new routes, with several lines beneath St. Excavations began the following year to create a multi-level express stop at th Street. Life along the avenue was significantly disrupted by construction, many residents and businesses relocated, two buildings collapsed, and a significant number of stoops were removed and replaced by ground-level entries. The th Street station was completed in , and A-train express service began two years later in September Entrances were located on either side of St.

Nicholas Avenue, at th and th Streets. Various names given to the area - Harlem Heights, lower Washington Heights and Hamilton Grange — fell out of use during the s and s. The blocks surrounding the former Hamilton mansion, west of St. Nicholas Avenue and mainly between th and th Streets became known as Hamilton Heights, and the blocks to east and the north, Sugar Hill. According the Encyclopedia of New York City, "Sugar Hill" was in use by , a time when few, if any, blacks actually lived in the area. For those inhabiting crowded tenements and rooming houses on the Harlem plain, the elevated residential area to the northwest took on a mythic character Ebony magazine reported:.

It was perceived as a place where life was "sweet," where its residents enjoyed prosperous and comfortable lives. The phrase became part of American culture and in a musical comedy of the same name opened on Broadway. It represented Sugar Hill "to be the cream - or at least the cafe au lait - of the Harlem residential district.

For residents of central Harlem, the eastern crest of the hill, Edgecombe Avenue, was Sugar Hill's most visible and consequently, best-known street. Overlooking Colonial now Jackie Robinson Park, the street's uninterrupted west front from th to th Streets is lined with sturdy neo-classical style apartment buildings, most of which were built between and , including three buildings Nos. The apartment building at Edgecombe Avenue originally known as the Colonial Parkway Apartments, a designated New York City Landmark , near th Street, dominates the north end of the crest.

Described in the New York Amsterdam News as "a regular skyscraper This imposing fourteen-story building was built for white tenants in , who were attracted to its spacious soundproof apartments which included as many as six rooms and "a servant's room, bath and toilet. As early as ,blacks were living on Edgecombe Avenue. TheNew York Amsterdam News, a weekly newspaper aimed at black readers, featured advertisements for Sugar Hill buildings in which the neighborhood was promoted as "the Finest and Most Exclusive Section in Harlem.

According to one writer, they had little choice since "white residents began moving out because Negroes [had] completely surrounded the building. Dubois, and the musicians Jimmie Lunceford, C. Luckeyth Luckey Roberts and Mercer Ellington. In the building was purchased by a black businessman, Augustine A. A six-story French Renaissance Revival style apartment building at Convent Avenue, at the northeast corner of th Street, called the Garrison Apartments originally Emsworth Hall , became Sugar Hill's first co-operative residence in It was converted by Samuel J.

Cottman, a black businessman, who organized several co-operative projects in Harlem and lived in this building from to James Weldon Johnson, the noted black writer and educator, was one of the first authors to describe the neighborhood's changed character. In Black Manhattan he observed:. It has spread to the west and occupies the heights of Coogan's Bluff overlooking Colonial Park. And to the east and west of this solid Negro area, there is a fringe where the population is mixed, white and coloured.

This expansion over the past five years has taken place without any physical opposition, or even any considerable outbreak of antagonistic public sentiment. He speculated as to whether such demographic changes could be maintained in the future, writing that:. With the neighborhood's white population in decline, many local churches were sold to black congregations. The taking over of church property is a frequent occurrence in Harlem.

Within the past three years the Negro population has moved westward across Eighth Avenue to St. Nicholas Park and up beyond th Street almost to the boundary of the Polo Grounds. Nicholas Avenue, transferred to St. Matthew, at the northeast corner of th Street and Convent Avenue, became Mt.

Zion Lutheran Church in , led by the noted clergyman and author Clemonce Sabourin. Harlem's would-be "sassiety" goes to town. Nicholas Avenue developed into a lively commercial thoroughfare during the s. Retail stores and restaurants, as well as nightspots opened on the lower floors of various rowhouses and apartment buildings. The best-known venues were located between th and th Streets: Jimmy's Jimmie's Chicken Shack, a popular restaurant with jazz musicians located in the basement of St.

Charlie "Bird" Parker, the famed jazz saxophonist, worked briefly as a dishwasher at Jimmy's Chicken Shack after moving to New York City in , and during the mids both he and Miles Davis inhabited the same apartment building nearby. Luckey' s Rendevous, located slightly below street level, was the former home of the Fujiyama Dance Studio and the Poosepahtuck Club, an "after-hours hideaway. Many well-known performers appeared at Luckey's Rendezvous, or came by for late-night jams, including the singer-actress Claudia Moore and the legendary jazz pianist Art Tatum. Nicholas Avenue, a three-story rowhouse that had recently been converted to apartments.

While in residence he wrote Invisible Man, a "novel in the tradition of the picaresque slave narrative that recounts the journey of an unnamed protagonist through life and from the Deep South to Harlem. Sugar Hill received considerable media attention during the late s. According to Ebony magazine, the "tree-shaded blocks between Edgecombe and Amsterdam Avenues" were populated by "Harlem's most talked-about men and women in law, sports, civil liberties, music medicine, painting, business and literature.

In a issue devoted to New York City, Holiday magazine published a vivid description of life and living conditions in Harlem. There is a moneyed class which lives largely in and around the section known as the Hill There is no inherited wealth on the Hill. The leisure class is composed of the wives of successful doctors, lawyers, dentists, real-estate operators and business men.

Their lives refute the picture of Harlem as a poverty-stricken community The Hill suggests that Harlem is simply a pleasant and rather luxurious part of Manhattan. The article also devoted space to neighborhood critics, such as Dan Burley, the editor of the New York Age, who maintained, contrary to Petry's view, that many of the "folk on the Kill are so stony- broke that they can not afford the luxury of overnight guests. Jet magazine reported in that the neighborhood had begun to experience "steady deterioration.

Nicholas Avenue had begun to fill with bars, saloons, and "third-rate diners. In the Harlem Task Force, a subsidiary of the New York State Urban Development Corporation, commended the neighborhood's "stable residential pattern," particularly the houses along Convent Avenue, which it described as "amongst the best built and best preserved in all of New York City. While some observers were quick to point out its current difficulties and decline, others took great pride in recalling the neighborhood's celebrated past. Efforts to preserve the Hamilton Heights and Sugar Hill area began soon after the creation of the Landmarks Commission in The following year a public hearing was held regarding the creation of an historic district in Hamilton Heights, from th to th Streets.

While no action was taken, several individual landmarks in the area were designated, including the Alexander Hamilton House in , the Hamilton Grange branch of the New York Public Library in , and the James A. Bailey House in In March , the boundaries of the Hamilton Heights Historic District were expanded, adding 51 buildings, including 31 rowhouses, 17 apartment buildings, and 3 related and contiguous ecclesiastical structures to the district.

Built for middle and upper middle-class white residents between the late s and the First World War, the area achieved its greatest fame during the s and s when a large number of. With unbroken rows of single-family houses and fine apartment buildings on its major thoroughfares, Sugar Hill has remained, for more than a century, one of New York City's most architecturally distinguished and culturally significant neighborhoods. The Allegory of the Cave—also known as the Analogy of the Cave, Plato's Cave, or the Parable of the Cave—is an allegory used by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic to illustrate "our nature in its education and want of education" a.

The Allegory of the Cave is presented after the metaphor of the sun b—c and the analogy of the divided line d—e. Plato lets Socrates describe a group of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them, and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows. According to Plato's Socrates, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality.

He then explains how the philosopher is like a prisoner who is freed from the cave and comes to understand that the shadows on the wall do not make up reality at all, as he can perceive the true form of reality rather than the mere shadows seen by the prisoners. The Allegory may be related to Plato's Theory of Forms, according to which the "Forms" or "Ideas" , and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality.

Only knowledge of the Forms constitutes real knowledge. I'm neither a typical collector of stamps, nor a stamp dealer. I'm only a stamp photograph. I'm fascinated of the fine close-up structures which are hidden in this small stamp-pictures. Please don't ask of the worth of these stamps - the most ones have a worth of a few cents or still less. By the way, I wanna say thank you to all flickr users who have sent me stamps! Someone sent me 3 or 5 stamps, another one sent me more than 20 stamps in a letter.

It's everytime a great surprise for me and I'm everytime happy to get letters with stamps inside from you! For the case you wanna send also stamps - it is possible. I'm pretty sure you'll see these stamps on this photostream on flickr: Is a country in central and southeastern Europe, at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain, the Balkans, and the Adriatic Sea.

Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. Croatia borders Slovenia and Hungary to the north, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the southeast, and Serbia and Montenegro to the east. The Croats arrived in the early seventh century in what is Croatia today. They organized the state into two dukedoms. The first king, King Tomislav was crowned in AD and Croatia was elevated into the status of a kingdom. Croatia entered a union with Hungary in In , Croatia declared independence from Austria—Hungary and co-founded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

On 25 June , Croatia declared independence and became a sovereign state. The country is a candidate for European Union membership and is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Croatia is classified as an emerging and developing economy by the International Monetary Fund and a high income economy by the World Bank. The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Paleolithic have been unearthed in the area of Krapina and Vindija.

Emperor Diocletian built a massive palace in Split where he retired from politics in AD The early history of Croatia ends with the Avar invasion in the first half of the 7th century and the destruction of almost all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to strategically better defended points on the coast, islands and mountains. The modern city of Dubrovnik was founded by those survivors. The Croats arrived in what is today Croatia probably in the early 7th century.

They organized into two dukedoms; the duchy of Pannonia in the north and the duchy of Littoral Croatia in the south. These missionaries converted Porga, and also a great many of the clan that was under his immediate authority, to the Christian faith in The Christianization of the Croats was mostly complete by the 9th century. Both duchies became Frankish vassals in late 8th century, and eventually became independent in the following century. He united the Croats of Dalmatia and Pannonia into a single Kingdom in Under his rule, Croatia became one of the most powerful kingdoms in Medieval Europe.

Tomislav defeated the invasions of the Arpads in battle and forced them across the Drava. He also annexed a part of Pannonia. This included the area between the rivers Drava, Sava and Kupa, so his Duchy bordered with Bulgaria for a period of time. This was the first time that the two Croatian Realms were united, and all Croats were in one state. Kingdom of Croatia existed ever since it's foundation in till the end of WWI, first as an indeprndent kingdom and later as a crown in different multietnic empires such as Kingdom of Hungary, Habsburg monarchy or Austria-Hungary.

Following the extinction of the Croatian ruling dynasty in , Ladislaus I of Hungary, the brother of Jelena Lijepa, the last Croatian queen, became the king of Croatia. Croatian nobility of the Littoral opposed this crowning, which led to 10 years of war and the recognition of the Hungarian ruler Coloman as the king of Croatia and Hungary in the treaty of often referred to as the Pacta conventa. In return, Coloman promised to maintain Croatia as a separate kingdom, not to settle Croatia with Hungarians, to guarantee Croatia's self-governance under a Ban, and to respect all the rights, laws and privileges of the Croatian Kingdom.

During this union, the Kingdom of Croatia never lost the right to elect its own king, had the ruling dynasty become extinct. In and Croatia chose its own king, but in both cases the Kingdom of Hungary declared war and the union was reestablished. For the next four centuries, the Kingdom of Croatia was ruled by the Sabor and Bans appointed by the Hungarian king.

The Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia remained a legally distinct constitutional entity, but the advent of a Hungarian king brought about other consequences such as: The Congregatio Regni tocius Sclavonie Generalis, the oldest surviving document written by the Croatian parliament, dates from this period. Subsequent kings sought to restore some of their previously lost influence by granting certain privileges to towns. After the death of King Louis II, Croatian nobles at the Cetingrad assembly chose the Habsburgs as new rulers of the Kingdom of Croatia, under the condition that they provide the troops and finances required to protect Croatia against the Ottoman Empire.

The surviving Roman population escaped to a small island near the coast where they founded a new settlement. During the Fourth Crusade the city fell under control of the Republic of Venice until the Zadar treaty when Venice, defeated by the Hungarian kingdom, lost control of Dalmatia and the Republic of Ragusa became a tributary of that kingdom.