Seduti dalla parte del torto" Ultras: It want to placing in doubt the reader. The hooligan, saw by society as a devil, is a socio-deviant or suffers a disease of our age call participant iper-socialness? It' an evil to destroy or a scapegoat?
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Hooligan's world is very analyzed by a real ultras who lives in it speaking about codes, aspects, values and motivations. The Ultras is only a man who sit in the wrong, who opposes him to society; but himself is an expression of this society. Electronic book text - Windows Pages: Review This Product No reviews yet - be the first to create one! He was the first Australian, the first UCLA faculty member, and one of the youngest mathematicians to receive the award. In April , Tao received the Alan T.
Waterman Award, which recognizes an early career scientist for outstanding contributions in their field. Vu solved the circular law conjecture.
Aforismi. Salvini aforista spettacolare come Flaiano e Kraus: “Sono indagato tra indagati”.
In , joint work with Ben Green culminated in the proof of the Hardy-Littlewood prime tuples conjecture for any linear system of finite complexity. That year, Tao presented work on a possible attack of the notorious Navier—Stokes existence and smoothness Millennium Problem, by establishing finite time blowup for an averaged three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation. That year he also, jointly with several co-authors, proved several results on short and long prime gaps. Book publications Solving Mathematical Problems: Vu, Cambridge University Press,  Nonlinear dispersive equations: Ci siamo arresi a Juncker?
Vauro a lezione dal vignettista Vukic, subito! Un piccolo regalo… in chiusura. Scrive peggio se ha tempo. But the story in which Fitzgerald has put the most of himself is that of Dick Diver in Tender is the night. Things get complicate when Dick begins to have an affair with Rosemary, a promising young Hollywood actress who is staying in their same hotel. The setting in which the story takes place is well known to Fitzgerald, because he and Zelda spent most of the s in Europe, especially in the French Riviera.
They conducted the same lifestyle as Dick and Nicole, attending the most glamorous parties and meeting the richest people at the time. But then they experienced the dark side of this lifestyle, with Fitzgerald sinking deeply into alcoholism and Zelda giving signs of mental instability.
Transposing his life into those of his characters was a way for distancing himself and analyse more clearly what had been going on in his life. And maybe it is exactly this will to bare his soul, together with his elegant and refined prose, that has made him one of the most appreciated authors of the American literature.
Through his novels and short stories he conveyed the atmosphere of that time, the feeling of carefreeness that lingered among the prominent people and their consequent disillusions. In Italy, the translators tried to transpose all this in versions that could be appreciated by the Italian audience that felt itself rather distant from the lifestyle depicted in The great Gatsby.
When the first Italian translation appeared, a decade after the publication in the United States, the Italian people had already been experiencing totalitarianism for years. It was not so chronologically distant from the original, but the Italian readers could not empathize with the characters because of the different social and cultural backgrounds, although Giardini had tried to adapt the language of the book in order to make it more appealing to his readers.
Choice that turned out to be the more appropriate, for her version has been the most read one for many decades and even is now. However, in order to make the novel the most suitable possible for the Italian audience of that time, Pivano had to adapt some terms of the original and make them more comprehensible or appropriate.
Therefore for an Italian reader it could seem for example that Gatsby had earned all his fortune from the under-the-counter selling of alcohol in innocent pharmacies, while the original term was drugstore, that in English has a double meaning: Of course the best fitting solution was not the latter, but Pivano thought that it would be more comprehensible for the readers that maybe could not know what a drugstore was. For example, the term football had been translated by Pivano in calcio, although they are two different sports, because football was not so popular and known in Italy at that time in fact the English word for the Italian calcio is soccer and not football.
And again, the cocktail mint julep is explained generically with the paraphrase un cocktail alla menta, while it is a very specific cocktail prepared with mint and bourbon. The problem of the adaptation has been a complex issue for the translators that later had to be confronted with the novel. This makes s translators face a complex issue: That is why she has decided to leave some terms in English, to make the reader feel that the story is located in another country, in order not to distort the nature of the book too much.
The aim is that of pushing the readers towards the universe of the author, immersing them into the atmosphere, the customs and practice of those specific place and time. In his opinion, trying too much to modernize is what makes a version old in the future. His aim is 3 Cavagnoli Franca, N. That is why Pincio decides to distance from his colleagues and translates the expression Old sport, that Gatsby uses to refer to his friends and acquaintances, with Vecchia lenza. Serrai stated that he had known Gatsby in the translation by Fernanda Pivano and he is very attached to it.
However, he does not like some choices made by Pivano: As Serrai points out, Fitzgerald had a well-defined idea in mind and this is why he decided to write against the current instead of against the wind, because he wanted to convey the extreme effort of man trying to move on while they are ceaselessly borne back into the past.
All three winners of the von Rezzori Prize in agree on one point: On the contrary, Cavagnoli, Pincio and Serrai are inclined to vary the register and style according to the person who is speaking: The most appropriate way to begin is to start from the opening of the book. The narrator, Nick Carraway, is describing himself talking about one of his gifts: He then introduces the object of his reflection, the reason why he has decided to tell this story, that is Jay Gatsby. The abnormal mind is quick to detect and attach itself to this quality when it appears in a normal person, and so it came about that in college I was unjustly accused of being a politician, because I was privy to the secret griefs of wild, unknown men.
Reserving judgments is a matter of infinite hope. I am still a little afraid of missing something if I forget that, as my father snobbishly suggested, and I snobbishly repeat, a sense of the fundamental decencies is parcelled out unequally at birth. And, after boasting this way of my tolerance, I come to the admission that it has a limit.
When I came back from the East last autumn I felt that I wanted the world to be in uniform and at a sort of moral attention forever; I wanted no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart. Only Gatsby, the man who gives his name to this book, was exempt from my reaction—Gatsby who represented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn.
If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away. No—Gatsby turned out all right at the end; it is what preyed on Gatsby, what foul dust floated in the wake of his dreams that temporarily closed out my interest in the abortive sorrows and shortwinded elations of men. Nick proudly boasts his tolerance, admitting however that it has some limits; Gatsby is depicted as a man full of hope, a sort of a romantic hero who strives to fulfil his dream but is surrounded by the rottenness of the world.
This extract is quite crucial because it lays the foundations of the moral intent of the book, drafting the personalities of the protagonists. Moreover, the opening of the book is 4 Fitzgerald F. The following translation has been made by Cesare Giardini Riserbare il proprio giudizio, sottintende una speranza infinita.
Io temerei ancora un poco di mancare a me stesso se dimenticassi che, come con snobismo suggeriva mio padre e con snobismo io ripeto qui, il sentimento delle decenze fondamentali al momento della nascita viene assai inegualmente suddiviso. In this extract the explanation for the choice of the title Gatsby il Magnifico can be seen: Probably it was exactly at this point that the title of the first Italian version was decided, keeping the French translation as a reference.
Moving to the 50s, there is a slight change in the style, that could sound a bit more up- to-date. Here is the translation by Fernanda Pivano , the version of reference for many other translations to come. Per questo ho la tendenza a evitare ogni giudizio, un'abitudine che oltre a rivelarmi molti caratteri strani mi ha anche reso vittima di non pochi scocciatori inveterati.
La maggior parte delle confidenze non erano provocate: Also like Giardini, the miles of the original text are converted into chilometri. Unlike her colleague, however, Pivano prefers to maintain a more generic East instead of specifying the city of New York, maybe to anticipate the contradiction between East and West that will clearly emerge throughout the novel.
E, dopo essermi vantato della mia tolleranza, devo ammettere che essa ha un limite. For this reason the miles have been left as they are and not converted into kilometres, and also the punctuation does not strictly complies with the Italian rules such as the English dash, that in Italian is not commonly used as a punctuation mark. The prose is fluent and the language not redundant or too sophisticated, as she tried to use a language that was as modern as possible, yet not distancing herself from the original. Of a different opinion is Tommaso Pincio , who opts for a slightly antiquated language.
Di conseguenza, sono incline a sospendere ogni giudizio, abitudine che mi ha aperto a un gran numero di persone strane e mi ha inoltre reso vittima di non pochi seccatori consumati. La sospensione del giudizio presuppone una speranza infinita.
Il quasi-filosofo Vito Mancuso e la “peculiarità degli uomini”.
Ancora adesso temo che perderei qualcosa qualora mi dimenticassi che, come mio padre snobisticamente asseriva e io snobisticamente ripeto, il senso della basilare decenza viene distribuito in misura iniqua alla nascita. E, dopo essermi tanto gloriato per la mia tolleranza, giungo ad ammettere che essa ha un limite. Gatsby, che rappresentava tutto quello per cui nutro un disprezzo spontaneo.
But there is one thing that is the cornerstone of the extract and that every translator had paid attention to: The third translation that has won the von Rezzori prize for literary translation was by Roberto Serrai, Marsilio. On the whole, the style is up-to-date; Serrai uses a lot of English dashes and, like Cavagnoli, decides not to convert the miles in kilometres. From the various versions the different approaches that each translator has personally adopted for their work emerge.
Depending mostly on the historical period, some translators focus particularly on the cultural aspect and tried to adapt the American culture and 9 Fitzgerald F. In the following paragraph there will be the analysis of another crucial passage of the novel, the ending, in which the message that Fitzgerald wanted to convey in his work has been clearly expressed. In fact, Gatsby had built his home exactly on the opposite side of the bay and that green light was a sort of reminder that his dream was so close to be nearly grasped just by stretching his hand.
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On the last night, with my trunk packed and my car sold to the grocer, I went over and looked at that huge incoherent failure of a house once more. On the white steps an obscene word, scrawled by some boy with a piece of brick, stood out clearly in the moonlight and I erased it, drawing my shoe raspingly along the stone. Then I wandered down to the beach and sprawled out on the sand.
Most of the big shore places were closed now and there were hardly any lights except the shadowy, moving glow of a ferryboat across the Sound. He had come a long way to this blue lawn and his dream must have seemed so close that he could hardly fail to grasp it. He did not know that it was already behind him, somewhere back in that vast obscurity beyond the city, where the dark fields of the republic rolled on under the night.
Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. Sugli scalini bianchi una parola oscena, tracciata da qualche vagabondo con un pezzo di mattone,si staccava nel chiaro di luna. La cancellai strofinando la pietra con la suola della scarpa. Poi discesi a passi lenti sulla spiaggia e mi sdraiai sulla sabbia. E, seduto in quel luogo, riflettendo al vecchio mondo ignoto, pensai allo stupore che aveva dovuto provare Gatsby quando aveva identificato per la prima volta la luce verde in cima alla gettata di Daisy.
Egli era venuto da molto lontano su quel prato azzurro, e il suo 10 Fitzgerald F. It is also interesting to notice that he leaves the term ferryboat as it is in English, a sign of the Anglo-Saxon culture that had already entered in regular use in the 30s. The last sentence well conveys the idea of a man strenuously trying to move on but being constantly pushed back by the current into the past. The following version by Fernanda Pivano was made well-known by the last line, the most famous sentence of her translation. Sui gradini bianchi una parola oscena, scarabocchiata con un pezzo di mattone da qualche ragazzino, risaltava chiara sotto la luce della luna; la cancellai, raschiando la pietra con la scarpa.
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Poi scesi lentamente sulla spiaggia e mi distesi sulla sabbia. Quasi tutte le grandi ville costiere oramai erano chiuse e le luci erano rare, se si toglieva il chiarore di un ferryboat la cui ombra si spostava attraverso lo stretto. Gatsby credeva nella luce verde, il futuro orgiastico che anno per anno indietreggia davanti a noi. In fact, probably due to a misprint, Pivano erroneously translated it with orgiastico. Fitzgerald dreaded this typographical error to occur, so he supervised each phase of the printing process to prevent an i from appearing.
However that probably happened, so Pivano and other Italian translators were misled from the original version. Besides that, her style is highly evocative and the final sentence summarises the moral of the whole novel in a concise, yet meaningful way. Sulla scala bianca una parola oscena, scribacchiata da qualche bambino con un coccio di mattone, risaltava chiara sotto la luna; la cancellai grattandola via con la scarpa.
Poi scesi alla spiaggia e mi sdraiai sulla sabbia. Gatsby credeva nella luce verde, nel futuro orgastico che anno dopo anno si ritira davanti a noi. Cavagnoli takes advantage of this particularity and translates the expression to beat on with navighiamo di bolina close-hauled sailing trim , that is a sailing trim in zigzags in order to be able to sail against the wind. The difficulty in this case lies in the fact that often a semantic field in one language does not necessarily has the same exact words in another language. Another semantic field that recurs throughout the novel is that of restlessness and disquiet, such as for example the term ceaselessly at the very end of the book.
Also Tommaso Pincio chooses a technical term to define the expression so we beat on. Sui gradini bianchi una parola oscena, scribacchiata da qualche ragazzo con un pezzo di mattone, spiccava al chiarore della luna e la cancellai, raschiando la pietra con la suola. Quindi gironzolai fino alla spiaggia, dove mi allungai sulla sabbia. La maggior parte delle grandi case della costa erano chiuse adesso e non si vedevano che rade luci, a parte il bagliore, mobile e indistinto, di un battello che attraversava lo Stretto.
La strada che lo aveva portato a quel prato blu era stata lunga e il suo sogno dovette sembrargli troppo vicino per non riuscire ad afferrarlo. Gatsby credeva nella luce verde, nel futuro orgiastico che anno dopo anno si allontana da noi. In fact, bordeggiare means tacking, that is a trajectory in zigzags in which the close-hauled sailing trim is used. The other thing that is immediately evident is the erroneous translation of orgastic with orgiastic; probably Pincio took as a reference the version by Fernanda Pivano and in this way the error has come to today. It is also interesting to notice the translation of the term ferryboat with the Italian battello, because among the versions taken into consideration here, it has been the only case so far.
The last translation examined is that by Roberto Serrai. Sui gradini bianchi il chiaro di luna faceva risaltare una parola oscena, scarabocchiata da qualche ragazzo con un pezzo di mattone, e io la cancellai, passando con forza la suola sulla pietra.
Poi camminai fino alla spiaggia e mi distesi sulla sabbia. Gatsby credeva nella luce verde, nel futuro orgasmico che anno dopo anno indietreggia di fronte a noi. Therefore Serrai decides to leave the expression contro la corrente instead of using a specific term of the sailing field, justifying his choice by saying that against the current better expresses the idea of struggling against the unavoidability of life. Each translator 15 Fitzgerald F. In the following chapter I will try to give a personal translation proposal in order to adapt the theory to the actual work and confront myself with the difficulties that literary translation implies.
The extracts that have been picked are the same chosen for the comparative analysis that has been made in the previous chapter. Here is my translation of the opening of the novel. In my translation I have tried to remain faithful to the original text above all for what concerns language and style. In my view, it is important to respect and maintain the cultural and environmental background of a literary work. Translating is all a matter of choices: To answer these questions is not as simple as it could seem. In the initial passage of The Great Gatsby there are no explicit references to the exact setting of the novel, aside from the generic mention of the East.
For what concerns the lexical aspect, there are a few words that can cause some troubles to people who are translating the novel into Italian. The final paragraphs recall this concept and offer some interesting linguistic hints. Here is my suggestion for translation. Una parola oscena, scarabocchiata da qualche ragazzino con un pezzo di mattone, spiccava chiaramente sui gradini bianchi alla luce della luna. La cancellai sfregandola con la scarpa. Poi mi diressi verso la spiaggia e mi distesi sulla sabbia. Gatsby credeva nella luce verde, nel futuro orgastico che anno dopo anno svanisce davanti a noi.
One of the points for which I had more difficulties was the translation of the expression inessential houses. In its literary sense, the term inessential means something superfluous, not indispensible. Inessenziale in Italian has the same meaning, but it is not commonly used in reference to the term case. However, all the synonyms in Italian seemed to me to be equally inadequate.
Seduti Dalla Parte del Torto (Italian, Electronic book text)
Therefore, at the end of the day, case inessenziali had sense into the coherence of the text, so I decided to leave it the same as in English. The term to which I had to pay the most of attention was unquestionably orgastic, that could be easily misunderstood as orgiastic, as it also happened to translators of some repute. Nowadays it is commonly known that the error was due to a misprint and with that term the author meant something almost ecstatic and obviously not related to orgies.
But it is a crucial point in the whole novel and it deserves to be translated with the most carefulness as possible. Finally, moving to the very last line, the issue was: I have chosen the latter option, because in my opinion the concept would have been conveyed in a simpler and more direct way yet not altering its intrinsic meaning and above all it would have been comprehensible to everybody, even to people who do not know anything about sailing and navigation.