Even the pop-video fuckers steal from it. Warburg 1 goes to stand behind the Hopi Indian cutout. Though one thing I should point out seems absent from your reaso- ning is that the snake also symbolises forbidden pleasure—Adam and Eve and the snake in the Garden of Eden, remember? Aby Warburg Actor 2 What? Am I hearing voices? I think I am. I might be hearing voices. A snake lies between her legs, then comes up to a sitting position Fig. It is believed that if he drink this coffee he will never leave her.
The two Warburgs come to standing. I certainly do not think very highly of Sigmund Freud. Let us listen to Doctor Binswanger instead. Both Warburgs are trembling. She returns from the left, stands in the centre, Warburg 2 joins her. She gestures with her pen for his back to bend; she rests her clipboard on his back. Clearing her throat, reading from a letter: He is currently being held in the isolation ward.
He remains interested in everything and absorbed in the analysis and judgment of both things and people. Warburg 1 crawls through Warburg 2 legs from behind and stands up in front of him. Warburg 2 is writing frenetically in the air His memory is excellent, but he can only focus on his scientific studies for a very limited period of time.
Please treat this information with the utmost confidence. Warburg 1 bends forward; Warburg 2 is standing I feel very sad that he will no longer continue to mine the treasure chest of Fig. Binswanger leaves to the left Aby Warburg Actor 1 wiser words were rarely spoken— Warburg 1 has taken the letter, both Warburgs bent forward though little did the good doctor know that I was eventually going to wake up from the sleep of unreason. Only to slump back into it towards the end of my life. I eventually passed away in the peaceful setting of my own home, if you are interested to know—not in the loony bin—just two days before the whole world came to a screeching halt A snake dancer is crawling on the floor.
Warburg 1 is still bent forward, Warburg 2 is holding his collar in horror because of the first great Wall Street crash. Warburg 2 smiling But that is another story, one told in the next chapter. Warburg 1 stands up, Warburg 2 takes him by the arm and Warburg 1 moves behind the Hopi cutout. You really made that one up. Warburg 1 and 2 move towards the cutouts; Warburg 1, standing in front of the Hopi cutout, is shouting at 2, standing by the Warburg cutout You crazy German. Crazy heir to a banking fortune. Binswanger enters with clipboard. One snake is standing and rolls behind the set on the right hand side, the other rolls on ground towards audience Doctor Ludovica Binswanger Actor 3 Addressing first Hopi and Warburg, who have disappeared behind the cutouts, and then the audience Allow me to intervene and proffer some clinical analysis here.
Is the art world in love with Aby Warburg because the art world is in love with madness? Is the art world the only part of the world in which madness is somehow allowed—sexy even? Indeed, it seems that it is only OK to eat human fetuses if you can call it art. Otherwise, not so much. You could say that art is the one kind of madness Binswanger taps her pen with force several times on her notes the world desperately desires.
Hopi Man Actor 1 Shouting and pointing his finger angrily Yeah yeah, yada yad—deep shit. I should never have set foot inside any museum. Coming to Warburg 2 who places his hand on his shoulder comfortingly I should calm down and let you speak a little about ritual for a change. Hopi Indian Actor 1 What, this play? Aby Warburg Actor 2 well, not exactly. I mean this gathering. Both Warburgs move to the centre of stage Warburg 2 stands behind 1, gesturing These people gathering—for art.
Warburg 2 enters and takes the Tea Party sign from Dead Dad and carrying it over his shoulder, doing a funny walk off the stage. The dancers enter and move the dead Dad cutout to the right hand side of the stage Or over easy, depending on how you look at it. The dancers move the snake carpet and Andrea Fraser cutout forward, at the same time Actor 2 moves the Goshka Macuga cutout to the front of the stage on the left We are going to talk about art, money and politics.
Actor 1 is standing Which is why we find ourselves in a bedroom, in bed. Everyone on the bed is looking either at Warburg 1 speaking or the audience The history of art, which coincides with the history of money, is full of beds, and not just for sleeping. This may be the source, possibly, of the expression Fig. I am the artist and I like to be embedded.
I am the curator and I also like to be in bed. I am the artist and I like to be em- bedded. Actor 2 walks to behind the Dieter Roelstraete cutout, arms outstretched and speaking theatrically Dieter Roelstraete Actor 2 Hello, my name is Dieter Roelstraete. Actor 1 stands up behind the Roman Abramovichh cutout which is on the bed. I have no Napoleonic dreams. I am just har- dworking and pragmatic. And, yes, I happen to have many beds—in yachts, villas, townhouses, and in private jets as well.
You know me from that photograph, Fig. I utterly abhor racism and would like to apologize to anyone who has been offended by this image. I just wanted to say that said photograph, which has been published completely out of context, is of an artwork in- tended specifically as a commentary on gender and racial politics. I utterly abhor racism, A gesture to the audience and would like to apologize to anyone who has been offended by this ima- ge. I would like to hear An- drea Fraser speak on this issue. She has considerable experience, after all, with working in bed I believe.
Actor 4 goes down to lying behind the Andrea Fraser cutout Andrea Fraser Actor 4 Actor 4 in a nasal American accent I assume you are referring to Untitled, my performance from in which I filmed myself sleeping with a collector, yes, dear Dad? For an undisclosed amount of money, that is… Well, my own experience of doing the piece was really very empowering and quite in line with my understanding of my own feminism. It was my idea; it was my scenario.
I was producing a piece that I would own. I was very much in control of the process. I never felt used by the collector. Actor 1, 2 and 3 are standing listening to Andrea Fraser In fact, I was much more concerned about using him. And showing it has also been empowering—terrifying, but empowering. Almost everyone I know has now seen me have sex on camera. In a way, I am now imper- vious to physical exposure and voyeurism. So, that was my experience. You know, people certainly can argue with this, but it really was a very different kind of relationship, one in which I had an enormous amount of power.
Is it any more prostitution because I happen to be having sex with a man than it would be if I were just selling him a piece? And that brings us back to the entanglement of art and money. The dancers under the sheet continue to move suggestively and vigorously Andrea, you—who else? Andrea, would you mind reading from the essay in question? In Balkans I usually only get to fiddle with snakes or skeletons. Dead Dad Dancer Over my dead body, Marina! Actor 3 moves to the Goshka Macuga cutout. Oh, here perhaps, where I am addressing the re- lation between the booming art market and growing income inequality and the concentration of wealth in ever fewer hands.
Yes Roman, I am talking about you here—this is a particularly good quote: And the question is: Dead Dad Dancer Over my dead body! How can we continue to justify our taking part in such an economy? Andrea Fraser Actor 4 I believe I already answered your question.
If our only choice is to partici- pate in this economy or abandon the art field entirely, at least we can stop rationalising that participation in the name of critical or political art practi- ces or—adding insult to injury—social justice. Actor 1 has been walking around the bed Roman Abramovich Actor 1 Or in theatre plays. Let me pay for this one, OK? Can I have the bill? Goshka Macuga Actor 3 Listen, this is all a little too depressing for our taste, frankly. All the actors move towards the Goshka Macuga cutout snapping the fingers of their right hand synchronously.
They form a circle and continue to click their fin- gers moving their hips back and forward, dancing with Goshka Macuga Give peace a chance! First of all, we think Andrea is primarily speaking from an American perspective here—one that may end up romanticising the so-called alternatives somewhat. Th is is just too one-dimensionally bleak a picture. I mean, why did we become artists or curators in the first place? And why did anyone ever start collecting art? Surely not for the love of money. You can choose to be outside of it all—you can choose to be outsiders.
All the actors apart from Actor 3 continue dancing while moving across to the right of the stage Dead Dad Dancer What, like outsider artists? Everyone, apart from Goshka Macuga, starts to dance with the cutouts freestyle Roman Abramovich Actor 1 Let me buy it for you. You are not the only one to do so.
Many give a few thousand here and there, to this museum or that art project, and instantly become part of the elite of rich, powerful and sophisticated art lovers. Everyone, apart from Goshka Macuga, is now dancing wildly across the back stage Goshka Macuga Actor 3 In the art world no one will ask you where your money came from, whether it is dirty or clean. This is where the circle closes. Everyone, apart from Goshka Macuga, moves to dance around and on the bed.
Goshka Macuga moves to the bed and raises her fist in the air. Goshka Macuga Actor 3 The cast join in with hands in the air I want to break free from this circle and become a square! I know your pain—I, too, had to break free and give away mine. It was dri- ving me crazy. All the actors sit around Warburg 1 at the front of the bed And so I gave my life to art instead.
Starts screaming, lying on the bed In the moment of my death I regained my voice. Warburg 2 stand up walks towards the front of the stage and falls down, curling into a fetus position away from the audience Actor 1 playing Warburg 2 Mary! Marry me, Holy Mary! A dancer moves to behind Dead Dad.
There is no denying the reality of the world we are in, mad or not. We are the world we have created, and when we cease to exist this world we have created will also cease to exist. The actor playing Goshka Macuga moves from the bed to behind the cutout Goshka Macuga Actor 3 But death is not the end. The dancers get up and lift the Andrea Fraser cloth into a curtain at the front of the stage. The actors get up one at a time and move into a line behind the curtain Roman Abramovich Actor 1 Popping out from behind the curtain Hello, waiter?
Can I have a discount? Si tratta di model- li spettrali incorniciati per sempre in tele immaginarie, o sono immagi- ni viventi di un atlante immemorabile in cerca di nuove sincronizzazioni? Cosa sorreggono, ora, i cavalletti, i sostegni e i puntelli? Cosa riposa sui le- gni e sulle sedie, cosa si appoggia sui banchi, sui trespoli o sui basamenti? Una autode- terminazione della forza nelle fi gure presentate in una performance dal vivo che non risponde al o non si esaurisce nel visibile. Bradburne Sieni , 6.
Una le- zione a cui comunque queste azioni coreografiche si rivolgono, e da cui pure in larga parte procedono. Qui un metodo impara a nascondersi: Nancy , , e come pensiero: Un effetto di doppio legame capace di porre il visitatore in una condizione di profondo dilemma: Sembra inoltre qui precisarsi quella archeologia del corpo che informa la ricerca di Sieni in questi ultimi anni. La struttura e il percorso logico con cui sono organizzati sembrano accostabili e ripercor- ribili ma non in modo speculare. La pubblicazione non ha dunque valore normativo, come potrebbe avere ad esempio un catalogo di una mostra, ma creativo.
In questa prima introduzione provo a riconoscere nella disposizione delle azioni i corrispettivi fi gurali e le memorie gestuali disseminate nella coreografia. Il privi- legio essenziale della vista sta nel permettere di conoscere gli oggetti in una percezione si- multanea; qui, inve- ce, Comuniello trova una diversa pienezza per incontrarli uno a uno, confrontandoli a misura del proprio corpo. Stanze 3 e 4: Questa simmetria fa del corpo morto una estensione del corpo vivo, e vice- versa: Stanze 7 e 8: Infine, a proposito della domanda di avvio di questo saggio: Insegnamento e dono, non sofferenza e privazione.
Se ne faccia una ragione chi si ostina a pensare questa partitura, invece, come sgarbata, e tale la danza che dovrebbe esibire. In his choreographed transposition, Sieni composes an atlas inhabited by bodies, open to the fragility of the living things; it strictly relates to the remains of a gesture, and to the personal and social memory of a figure. In this performative environment, loss is conceived as a more acute presence. In fact, on the one hand, Manne- rism is transposed onto and synchronized with the present. On the other hand, the Passion a central Mannerist theme and the sacrificial body of Christ as performance of the end of humanity are presented as ultimate questions, projected with the rhetorical force of a prayer — questions that look for creative, open, compassionate answers.
A Raw Tip: novembre
Regole monastiche e forme di vita, Vicenza, Digressione intorno al doppio legame, Pisa, Braidotti  Rosi Braidotti, Trasposizioni. Broggini Oliver Broggini, Le rovine del Novecento. Bruno  Giuliana Bruno, Atlante delle emozioni. In viaggio tra arte, architettura e cinema, ed. Le mani alzate come scrificio della sera Sal ,2 , a c. Essays on postmodern culture, a c. Testimonianze e riflessioni intorno al processo creativo, a c. Michele Sambin, Virgilio Sieni, in Teatro e media, a c. Farinelli Franco Farinelli, La crisi della ragione cartografica, Torino, Forster, Mazzucco Kurt W.
Atlante delle architetture, a c. Dance in the Museum, in Dance in the Museum, a c. Achille, Meleagro, Cristo, a c. Kantor  Tadeusz Kantor, Il teatro della morte, a c. Mazzaglia Rossella Mazzaglia, Virgilio Sieni. Archeologia di un pensiero coreografico, Spoleto, Nancy Jean-Luc Nancy, Visitazione della pittura cristiana , a c. Nancy  Jean-Luc Nancy, Corpus, a c. Quaini Massimo Quaini, Il mito di Atlante.
Sacco Daniela Sacco, Mito e teatro. Il principio drammaturgico del montaggio, Milano, Sieni, Di Paolo Vangelo secondo Matteo. Ransom, Il doppio legame. Tomassini Stefano Tomassini, Danzare Isolati. Da una prospettiva aerea le geometrie dei confini si presentano costantemente cangianti: Sono questi gli anni in cui le teorie warburghiane divengono fonte privilegiata di ispirazione, corridoio per giungere sulle ta- vole del palcoscenico: Mango, Teatro di poesia. Saggio su Federico Tiezzi, Bulzoni, Roma, Teatro e arti visive nelle poetiche del Nove- cento, Bulzoni, Roma, ; L.
Mango, La scrittura scenica. Un codice e le sue pratiche nel teatro del Novecento, Bulzoni, Roma, ; S. Un cantante deve avere poche indicazioni, ma a fuoco, una partitura di movimenti nello spazio, di gesti, di intenzioni recitative, che lo ancorino al palcoscenico, gli diano una struttura matematica equivalente a quella mu- sicale, alla quale appoggiarsi.
Pier Paolo Bisleri; Costumi: Gianni Pollini; Cast vocale: Emblematiche sono le sequenze iniziali di Norma: Vengono da stanze della memoria, del passato o addirittura da altri testi, ad esempio dalle stanze della tortura di Ibsen o Strindberg, o da un bosco. Scuderi, La Norma di Federico Tiezzi. Vita reale, Sopra, a destra: Raffaello Sanzio, Trasfigurazione particolare , olio su tavola, x cm, , Pinacoteca vaticana.
Norma si avanza, e stende le braccia al cielo. La luna splende in tutta la sua luce. Caravaggio, Deposizione, olio su tela, x cm, —4, Pinacoteca Vaticana. I soldati scortano dunque Pollione verso la ribalta, imprevisto che genera in Norma un eccesso patetico: Efficace risulta il confronto con il celebre cratere di Boston. Frontone ovest del Partenone, Fidia e collaboratori, marmo del Pentelico, a.
Lamentazioni durante la prothesis, lekythos attica. Sarcofago romano con scene della vita di Achille, d. Ostia, Museo Archeologico Ostiense. Tiezzi mira a fornire un corpus variegato di pose atte a esprimere, alternativamente, dolore, sdegno, vergogna.
Il primo gesto che sconvolge la Sopra, a sinistra: Cometa a cura di , Laocoonte.
Download This eBook
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Aesthetica, Palermo, , p. Per dirla con Warburg: Gott ist im Detail. Proviamo allora, in conclusione, a disporre in una sequen- za sintetica che rimane aperta le tesi sin qui declinate. Due erano i focus cardinali: In all the plays and operas he has put on, his rigorous visual grammar brings about suggestions and interferences that deeply innervate his scene setting. Catoni, Ginzburg, Giuliani, Settis M.
Achille, Meleagro e Cristo, Milano, De Laude S. Delle Sedie E. Lombardi, Jean Fouquet, Firenze, Kany, Lo sguardo filologico. Tiezzi, Il teatro di poesia e il suo ritmo, in Il teatro come pensiero teatrale, Atti del convegno Salerno, dicembre a cura di Rosa Meccia, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, , pp. Warburg, La rinascita del paganesimo antico. Contributi alla storia della cultura raccolti da Gertrud Bing, Firenze, Cassirer, Il mondo di ieri.
Lettere, a cura di M. It appears that in original performances, none of the atrocities were represented on stage as they were considered too grave to be shown in theatre. This unwritten rule, however, was apparently broken once to show the audience the most intense moment in the tragedy: The nuns lie dead, their bodies in heaps across the floor of their beloved monastery, like a fallen garland of red and white roses Vondel, Gysbreght, ll. To leave the most intense impression, all action in the play is suspended and the characters stand frozen for some ten mi- nutes Albach , This means a prolonging of the massacre and, thus, the spectator absorbs every detail of the scene.
In the extraordinary interval of the tableau vivant, the scene is transformed into a spectacle designed for the expression of intense affects Korsten , 19 and The tableau vivant of what in Dutch scholarship is called the Klooster- moorden in English, The Monastery Murders was consistently part of the Gysbreght-performances during the seventeenth and eighteenth century.
The screaming nuns, shouting soldiers and despairing Bishop and Abbess shocked by the horrific act, generated affects so powerful that critics doubted the Dutch public could emotionally absorb it Albach , First, the article looks into what is known about the performance history of the Kloo- stermoorden tableau vivant and reviews common assumptions and hypothe- ses in Dutch scholarship about this particular tableau vivant. Second, the historical context of the Gysbreght is presented. Third, the intertextual and intermedial sources of the tableau vivant will be examined, along with how these sources can help understand the meaning of the tableau vivant.
As will be discussed, the Patho- sformeln and Denkraum are employed by mankind in their creation of art as useful tools to cope with daily fears and sorrows.
Latest Entries »
Reconstructing the Tableau Vivant In discussing the scene of the Kloostermoorden, a problem always arises. No eyewitness reports exist regarding the original performances, and the text itself makes no mention of a tableau vivant being performed in initial sta- gings. Albach suggests that the scene, which despite these holes in the hi- storical record still may have been part of the original play, might have been omitted during the first performances in Albach , In that case, the deletion of the tableau could have been the result of a powerful Calvinist lobby in Amsterdam objecting to apparently Catholic acts being performed in the play Albach , It may be that the massacre of the nuns was likewise suppressed in this context.
As a consequence, any mention of the tableau vivant would have had to be omitted in the text as well Albach , De vyant stont versuft, en deisde om deze zaeck. The messenger then describes that the nuns were slaughtered one by one, while the enemy raged in anger. The nuns lie dead and Vondel uses elaborate metaphors to describe the scene the audience previously witnessed: Another possibility is that the playwright and rhetorician Jan Vos came up with the tableau vivant when he assumed the position of theatre director of the Amsterdam City Theatre in According to this theory, Vos realised that the tableaux vivant attracted an audience and helped productions generate higher revenues Albach , ; Porteman and Smits-Veldt , It was common for Dutch plays from the middle of the seventeenth century to include one or more tableaux vivants: Additionally, Vondel himself also included several tableaux vivants in his famous allegorical play Palamedes, of vermoorde onnozelheid Pa- lamedes, or Murdered Gullibility, Whether the tableau vivant was originally devised by Vondel or not, from around the Gysbreght included a tableau vivant representing the Klo- ostermoorden, and this practice remained in one form or another until the nineteenth century.
In , an explanatory programme was published to accompany the showing of tableaux vivants in theatre plays, with different verses supplementing diffe- rent seventeenth-century tableaux vivants in Dutch plays: This was a common tradition employed by rhetoricians who worked with tableaux vivants Oey-de Vita , 12; Hummelen , ; Albach , The verse devoted to the Kloostermoorden reads: Ziet hier de Kennemers, als dol en uytgelaaten, De menschen moorden als baldadige soldaaten, De Bisschop en de Abdis, o gruwel, nooit gehoort! Die werden hier zeer wreed en jammerlyk vermoort.
Zo woedt het krygsvolk hier als snoode en dolle honden. It is an abomination, never heard of before! No altar is spared, all are consumed by them: In this way the soldiery rages here like heinous and frenzied dogs. At what price comes this Christmas Eve for Amsterdam, While presently her riches perish as the result of fire and the sword.
During the better part of the seventeenth century, the Dutch were looking to formulate an identity in a geopolitical environment that was constantly contesting Dutch sovereignty. Schama writes that the Dutch drew on three kinds of sources to reinvent the identity of the Dutch Republic: These three sources resulted in many chronicles, Latin tomes and theatre productions being written to glorify Dutch sovereignty. It was against this background that Vondel wrote his Gysbreght and unsur- prisingly, he employed all three sources for the new Dutch identity when he wrote his masterpiece.
Vondel very precisely described the offensives see Vondel, Gysbreght, ll. The Spanish Empire recaptured Breda in with Prince Frederik Henry of Orange retaking the city in October only months before the Gysbreght was performed for the first time. The tableau vivant of the Kloostermoorden would also have surely recalled the massacres of the Dutch Revolt, the most distressing being the Massa- cre of Naarden in late The printmaker Frans Hogenberg, who sympathized with the Protestants, depicted the violent scene in a engraving Fig.
Another important event was the Spanish Fury in Antwerp of As in Naarden, the city was plundered and the civilians were killed. The six- teenth-century counterpart of Amsterdam, Antwerp was a major metro- polis, and after its fall in many of its protestant families fled to ci- ties in the Dutch Republic with Amsterdam being a popular destination. Investing a literary work or a work of art with a politically-charged message was not uncommon in the Low Countries. Pieter Brueghel the Elder, for example, painted the biblical story of the Massacre of the Holy Innocents completed in replacing the traditional Roman soldiers with Spa- nish soldiers commanded by none other than the Duke of Alva himself Fig.
By replacing the Romans with Spanish soldiers he reflected on the atrocities committed by the Spanish and their commander the Duke of Alva1. Vondel would have been drawing from this artistic tradition by employing the same intertextual and biblical source of the Massacre of the Holy Innocents to shape the scene of the Kloostermoorden and its tableau vivant in his Gysbreght. Initially, it is not evident why the nuns choose to sing about the Massacre of the Holy Innocents. The chorus chants and asks how Herod can endure the light of Christmas, prideful in his command over the destruction of innocent souls whose screaming has woken everyone: Zijn hooghmoed luistert na geen reden, Hoe schel die in zijn ooren klinckt.
Unfortunately, parts of the painting were painted over on com- mission of Emperor Rudolph II. As a Habsburg emperor, he disliked the political message Brueghel had added. Therefore, he altered parts of the painting and renamed it Village Plundering. For example, the standard originally displayed five gold crosses on a white ground — the arms of Jerusalem. Other details include the herald who originally bore the Habsburg eagle on his tabard.
The armoured knights in the centre are led by a man, whose features have been altered. In other versions he has the distinctive drooping eyes and long white beard associated with the Duke of Alva. His pride knows no reason, Even if reason shrills in his ears. He tries to destroy the innocents, By killing innocent souls, He wakes a city and incites their cries in the provinces, In Bethlehem and in the field, He wakes the soul of Rachel, Who wanders over meadow and pasture.
As previously discussed, in Act Five, the messenger then recounts to Badeloch that the nuns are lying dead like a garland of red and white roses.
Conferenze tenute a Firenze nel 1896 by Various
The same comparison is made earlier in the chorus chanted by the nuns: For this reason, it is important for the massacre of the nuns to be regarded within the intertextual frame of the biblical slaughter of the inno- cents: In this context, Renaissance Theatre scholar Marco Prandoni demonstrates that the rey has a double function within the play.
First, it is reasonable to presume that the enemy will plunder the monastery at one point or another see Vondel, Gysbreght, ll. As such, the rey functions as a preparation for their deaths. Second, the chorus offers the audience a frame of reference for what will happen in the upcoming scenes. The chanting of the nuns activates a so-called martyrial frame, which functions as a frame of interpretation representing the massa- cred clergy as martyrs Prandoni , The nuns also become directly involved in the action onstage together with Bishop Gozewijn and Abbess Klaeris van Velzen Eversmann , In the same way, I believe that the story of the Massacre of the Holy Innocents offers an intertextual link with the scene of the Kloostermoorden.
In the Low Countries, this perspective on art and poetry was propagated by the influential rhetorician Matthijs de Castelein, active in the fi rst half of the sixteenth century. Second, it is of course the case that many artists have created interpre- tations of the biblical story of the Massacre of the Innocents.
For instance, the Massacre of the Holy Innocents c. Van Dixhoorn , Once freed, the votaries of antique emotive gesture could no longer be kept discreetly at a distance. Figure 5 Cornelis Cornelisz. The previously-cited engraving by Fokke, which schol- ars agree was inspired by the Gysbreght tableau vivant Fig. Fok- ke happens to have been related to several Amsterdam actors, thus it has been concluded by some scholars, that Fokke would have had considerable knowledge of acting and the Dutch theatre environment Albach , The intertextuality and intermediality exemplified by these tangled interconnections can be considered an example of how what Warburg calls Pathosformeln would have enhanced the emotive impact of the tableau vivant, multiplying the affects provoked by the frozen silhouettes of living bodies staged in the tableau vivant.
Uomo, il fascino è nello sguardo
Since a tableau vivant is a moment within a theatrical pro- duction in which action is suspended, one could indeed say that the au- dience is witness to a frozen moment. In this way, the intermedial link between painting and theatre is emphasized. Warburg  , [The figures of ancient myth appeared before Italian society not as plaster casts but in person, as figures full of life and color, in the festival pageants through which pagan joie de vivre had kept its foothold in popular culture.
As in Florence, one may say that pageants, proces- sions and contests were the only time for the Dutch to behold alive those characters typically only acted out through tableaux vivants. Although the rhetoricians were modest in sharing their poetic concepts with the public, Vondel appended his Gy- sbreght-editions of and with several laudatory verses devoted to the elite art of theatre. One of these verses explains the assets of theatre and Vondel suggests that theatre is a living art: Het wijckt gheen ander spel noch koningklijcke vonden.
Het bootst de weereld na. It is not inferior to any other game nor royal inventions. It copies the outside world; it tickles the soul and the body, And it can either excite, or it can strike at our sweet wounds. In another verse Vondel emphasizes the re- presentative nature of theatre by saying that daily life is equal to what an audience sees unfold on stage.
Like an actor in a play, everyone has a part to play in life. Accordingly, Vondel claims that the worries of daily life, and the tragic action played out on stage are fundamentally the same: De weereld is een speeltooneel, Elck speelt zijn rol, en krijght zijn deel. Several decades earlier in C. They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts. As a result, the tableau vivant of the Kloostermoorden reflected the out- side world in the same way as theatre did in general. The question remains, however, as to what instructions Vondel actually gave the actors who were employed to act out the Kloostermoorden tableau vivant.
During the prepa- rations, Vondel could have expressed his ideas on how the Gysbreght should be performed, since we know that he attended rehearsals. Dutch literary scholar Stijn Bussels stresses the importance of decorum in the Renaissan- ce: De Castelein asserts the same in his De Const van Rhetoriken: As Bussels points out, Quintilian stresses the importance of facial expressions and the use of hand gestures, since with them emotions are better expressed and often stronger than with words and language alone Bussels , Consequently, where we wish to give an impression of reality, let us assi- milate ourselves to the emotions of those who really suffer; let our speech spring from the very attitude that we want to produce in the judge.
Will the hearer feel sorrow, when I, whose object in speaking is to make him feel it, feel none? Will he be angry, if the person who is trying to excite his anger suffers nothing resembling the emotions he is calling for! Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 6. Are these intentional, controlled and codified gestures comparable to the Pathosformeln as Warburg conceives them? At first sight, it seems unlikely. However, since the emotion of dramatic action is created while being per- formed, actors have to depend on their expertise in channelling emotion, whilst being caught up in the dramatic moment: As withered white petals the nuns lie, inanimate and mutilated in heaps across the floor: With the Kloostermoorden tableau vivant, the audience is consumed by emotion, then Vondel, in ac- cordance with classical Aristotelian drama, transforms the affects, provi- ding the audience with a channel for emotive release.
As a result, the emotions staged in the tableau had to be transformed into something different. Warion seems to assign the true cause: Enraged at this undutiful conduct, he made his will, and bequeathed the whole of his property to Giro, and his body to the monks of Santa Maria degli Angeli, of Murano. Giulio, however, suc- ceeded in wresting part of his property from him.
His anger was now directed against the professors of the law, upon whom he poured a torrent of abuse in his comedy of I Simil- limi, on which he was then employed. The passage to which, I allude begins thus: With a lacerated mind, a body enfeebled by infirmities, and an heavy weight of years, the wretched old man hastened to Trent to throw himself again at the feet of Charles. From Trent he proceeded to Rome, carefully avoiding his native Vicenza; and soon after his arrival in that city, he yielded says he, " who flourished a few years after Ariosto, had taste and boldness enough to publish an epic poem, written in professed imitation of the Iliad.
But this attempt met with little regard or applause for the reason on which its real merit was founded. In his house at Cricoli hangs his portrait by Zambellino ; and his brother academicians, grateful to his memory, raised a statue to him in the Olympic theatre. When Goldoni visited Vicenza, the family of our, author were not extinct. Encouraged by the success of Trissino, his con temporary and friend Giovanni Rucellai, nephew of Lorenzo de' Medici, and cousin-german of LeoX. Ros- coe, " as a proteftor of learned men, but was himself one of the moil accomplished scholars of his time. Some particulars of his life may be found in Elog.
At the end ; Impressa in Siena, per Michelangelo di Barto. In this drama, Rucellai gave the first proof of his dramatic pow- ers. But he seems to have succeeded better in his Oreste, in which he is allowed to have supported the character of that unfortunate prince with ability, and to have painted the pas- sions with vigour and with truth. It should, however, be ob- served, that in the Rosmunda, Rucellai appears an original writer ; but in the Oreste he only affects the humble character of an imitator.
He constructed, upon an historic basis, the fable of the farmer; but the fable of the latter is borrowed from the Iphigenia in Tauris of Euripides. On the Rosmunda I shall here dilate a little, not only because though often printed it is of rare occurrence ; but because it was the second regular tragedy which appeared in the Italian language. Though the fable of the Rosmunda is conducted with the utmost simplicity, it is, however, extremely interesting.
The youth, the beauty, and the piety of Rosmunda excite our admiration, and engage our affections in the first moment of her appearance. The object of Falisco's enquiry gives birth to a new train of ideas without diverting the attention from the lovely and unfortunate captive. When Rosmunda appears before Alboinus, we tremble for her safety. Falisco, occasions an emotion of surprize mingled with plea-. The refusal of Rosmunda, and the persuasions of the nurse, again agitate our minds.
And while the moral reflec- tions of the chorus at the end of the third act, are gradually restoring our mental tranquillity, we are once more thrown into a state of perturbation by the hasty entrance of Helmi- child, and the relation of the horrible circumstance of Al- boinus obliging Rosmunda to drink out of the skull of her father.
Rosmunda appears again, rendered, if possible, more interesting by the barbarous conduct of the king. She faints, and while she seems sinking into the arms of death, the nurse exhorts Helmichild to avenge the death of his mistress and her father. The play concludes with the recovery of Ros- munda, and an account of the barbarous tyrant's death.
Thus, during the whole piece, the attention is never allowed to slumber. It is true, Rosmunda remains rather too long in a state of insensibility; but the interval between the departure of Helmichild and the assassination of the king, is filled up with choral songs suited to the melancholy occasion. But in z Mi. Roscoe observes on this tragedy ; " Rucellai has preserved his heroine from the crimes of prostitution and assassination, and has introduced a disinterested lover in the person of Almachilde, who excutes vengeance on the king from generous and patriotic motives.
In juftice to the author, it inuft also be observed, that the horrid incident upon which the tragedy is founded, is narrated only, and not represented before the audience. In the conversation which takes place between Rosmunda and her nurse, previous to the renewal of her researches for the dead body of her father, her age and character are thus unfolded: Amongst the entreaties and threats with which Rosmunda assails Falisco, there is one passage which seems to have been borrowed from the spirited declaration of Caterina, the widow of Girolamo Riario, when a scaffold for the execution of her tragedy.
But it was reserved for a living Irish writer to do it ample justice. In the Ros- munda, or the Daughter's Revenge of Mr. Preston, we are presented with a drama perfect in all its pans. In the main action, historic truth is preserved inviolate ; but the gloomy Con- rade, the magnanimous and unfortunate Aftolpho, and the fair and tender Adelaide, are three well drawn characters of the poet's own creation, artfully and happily introduced to increase the intereft of the piece, and assist in promoting the catastrophe.
Perhaps in one inftance, Mr. Prefton's tragedy, considered in a moral point of view, may be liable to censure. In the seventh scene of the fifth act, Rosmunda appears stained with adultery, rendered doubly foul by the motive with which it was committed. In this, it is true, the author does not depart from hiftory ; but the stage should not render us familiar with the enormity of guilt.
Poetical Works of William Preston. While Falisco is urging the sanguinary Alboinus to marry Rosmunda, he takes occasion to dilate on the policy of mercy with great art, and admirable felicity of expression. E come 1'una delle due si frange, Non ch' ambe, segue presto altaruina: Ma i dico ch'al re piii si conviene Esser avaro nel punire, e largo Nel premio; ch' in quel largo, e' n questo avaro. Considera 1' altezza ove tu sei, E che tutti i tuoi fatti c dctti sono Come incospetto delle genti umane: Onde quanto e maggior la tua potenza, Tanto minor licenza usar convienti.
Costui cantando molti egregi fatti, Disse, 'n tra gli altri, come' n la battaglia, Uccise con sua mano' 1 re Cumundo. Nel cantarsi di questo, alia regina Scendean dagli occhi per le belle guance Lacrime che pareano una rugiada Scesa la notte infra vermiglie rose. Soon as the viands were remov'd, and wine, Sparkling in crystal goblets, circled round The jocund board, the royal warrior call'd The master of the song, and bade him chaunt, In lofty strains, his feats of arms.
The bard Obey'd, and chose the monarch's favourite theme, The death of warlike Cunimundus, slain In battle by Albinus' wrathful hand. The dire narration drew a flood of tears From the bright eyes of lovely Rosamond, Which, glistening on her vermeil cheek, appear'd The dews of morning on the blushing rose. From the Rosmunda let us pass to the Oreste, the happiest dramatic production of our author. While Thoas is dwelling, with a bar- barous delight, on the sufferings of his captives in the amphi- theatre, a distant noise, resembling a peal of thunder mingled with cries of distress, is heard.
The chorus hastily entering, exclaim, Ohu, ohu, ohu! Thoas astonished and alarmed demands, Ma che stridore spaventoso, e strano Esce del fondo abisso della terra, E col rimbombo i nostri orecchi intuona? The noise and cries, it should seem, continue, and during the intervals of the pealing sounds, the chorus exclaim O cielo, o terra, o fiamma, o mare, o venti, O alto nume, o podesta suprema, O architetto de' convessi chiostri, Deh non mutate 1'ordine del cielo, E' non patite si confonda in caos Tanta e si bella macchina del mondo.
In order to discover whether Orestes be an impostor, Iphigenia desires him to describe the orna- ments of her bed.
Ma dimmi; sopra il cappezzal del letto Nella lettiera che v' er'ei dipinte? Sopra un erboso rivo Di corrente cristallo Un vago, e bianco cigno Sorgea, curvando il collo Sopra' 1 candido grembo D'una bella fanciulla, Che tessea d' erbe, e fiori Frescbe ghirlande: Poi con li schietti diti Al petto, al collo, al frontc Dell' uccel le ponea, Dipingendo di fiori Di piu di color mille, Come 1' Iride il sole Le piumos' ale.
Et ei fiso mirando Ne gli occhi di costei Sospeso pende. Moving, on the glassy tide, Soon a cygnet we defcry'd Gently steering to the shore, By the flow'ry margin moor. Arching his redundant crest, A gentle fair the swan carest, On her snowy bosom lying, While her busy fingers plying Her light taflc, with gentle care Wove him many a garland fair, For his neck and for his crest, And his gently swelling chest j Where many a tint was seen to glow, Richer than the show'ry bow; O'er his gay and ivory plumes, Shedding soft Elysian blooms.
Darting now an amorous glance, Or sinking down in rapt'rous trance, On her charms he seem'd to dwell, And with silent transport swell; 'Till issuing from his golden bill, These sweet accents seem'd to trill. Here the classical reader will find our author improving on his original ; for Euripides only makes Orestes slightly allude s ' to the dissentions between Atreus and Thyestes.
But this is not the only instance in which Rucellai departs from his au- thor with an happy boldness. Indeed he so frequently im- proves on the Greek tragedian, that he almost makes the sub- ject his own. This tragedy was not given to the press during the life-time of the author. It lay for two hundred years after his death, concealed in the chaos of his papers. At length it was discovered by the Marquis Maffei, and publish- ed in his Teatro Italiano. Riccoboni speaks with pride of having, as he believes, first introduced it upon the stage. The poem concludes with the author's determination to resume his tragedy of Orestes: Ma tempo e, ch' io ritorni al tristo Oreste, Con piu sublime, e lagrimoso verso, Come conviensi a i tragici coturni.
While Rucellai lay on his death bed, he solemnly charged his brother Palla to submit this poem to the perusal of his friend Trissino, and when it had received his last corrections, to dedicate it to him; an injunction which was religiously observed. Again, raising his faultering voice, " I would gladly" said he, " impose also on my dear Trissino, the irk- some task of correcting my Oreste, if I thought the me- mory of our long friendship would serve to mitigate the trouble.
They consulted each other on their differ- ent compositions, and, the better to judge of the flow of their numbers, they occasionally selected passages from their res- pective poetical productions, for recitation in their social meetings, each finding like a friend, Something to blame, and fomething to commend.
With talents so splendid, and a birth so illustrious, it is na- tural to suppose that Rucellai would be induced to take an aclive part in the political concerns of his country, or his fa- mily. Accordingly we are not surprised at finding him abandoning the muses, in order to go as ambassador from Florence to Venice, and as nuncio from the court of Rome to that of Francis I. With Leo, died his hopes of the por- pora. Angelo ; c in the enjoyment of which office he died in As Luigi Alamanni has ventured to dispute with Trissino the honor of first employing blank verse in " longer works," we shall notice him here, though he only appears in the humble rank of a translator or imitator, amongst the early dramatic c Rucellai has left an immortal monument of his gratitude to Clement, in the apos- trophe to the sacred college, in his Api, beginning Pero voi, che creaste in terra un Dio, See.
His imitation of the Antigone, of Sophocles, d] which appeared in , and his didactic poem of Coltivazione, printed at Paris in , are both in blank verse. Besides these productions, he published Rime in various measures. In his Inni, or Hymns, which are praised by Crescimbeni, lie uses the Greek divisions of strophe, antistrophe, and epode, giving to those divisions, in allusion to the original accompaniment of dancing, the denominations of ballata, contraballata, and stanza. Signer Signorelli vindicates Alamanni from the im- putation of being the author of a tragedy entitled Libero Arbitrio.
I' dico d' Alamanni, che mi vide Per mio raro destino uscire in scena. When I discover him haranguing a rnob, or animating the drooping courage of an army, flying from court to court for the vile purpose of inviting foreign powers to invade his country and redress the imaginary wrongs of his party ; when I hear him shouting for liberty, and, at the same time, observe him sow- ing the seeds of sedition, he reminds me of la Discorde in the Lutrin " toute noire' de crimes.
He has been ac- cused of apostacy to his church ; and, in consequence of having entered into a conspiracy to assassinate his friend and be- nefactor, cardinal Giulio de' Medici, he was obliged to aban- don his country. The design of this garden and the palace now the property of the Stiozzi family to which it belongs, was given by Leon Batista Albert! Alberti was not only an archi- tect, but a painter, a sculptor, and a successful poet. Some of his sonnets are much admired ; and his latin comedy of Philodoxios, which he distributed amongst his friends as the work of Lepidus, an ancient Roman poet, so effectually deceived the literati of his own and the suc- ceeding age, that the younger Aldus published it as a precious remnant of antiquity.
He was born in Florence in , and died at Am- boise in France, in During his exile he found liberal patrons in Francis I. Ariosto has honoured Alamanni with a niche in his Orlando Furioso. Amongst the many pieces as well original as trans- lations which covered her altars, the Edipo re of Orsatto Gi- ustiniano, a Venetian nobleman, particularly recommends itself to our notice, not only by its intrinsic merit, but from the adventitious circumstance of its having been the first drama represented in the famous Olympic theatre of Palladio in Vicenza, where, says an Italian author, it was recited in , " con sontuosissimo apparato.
When it was first exhibited, the part of CEdipus was performed with great ability, " sostenuta egregiamente," says an Italian critic, by Luigi Groto, commonly called il cieco d' Adria, from the circumstance of his being totally de- prived of sight ; a misfortune which befel him on the eighth day after he was born.
This extraordinary man was not only an actor of merit, but a fruitful and successful writer. But his tragedy of Hadriana, which appeared in , k gives him an aditional claim to our notice. In the prologue to this tragedy, the author tells his fellow citizens, that he is about to exhibit before them a drama Pien d'ogni oscuro, e tragico accidente, of which the fable is drawn from the annals of their native country, and the fcene laid in the ancient city of Adria. He then proceeds to describe the present state of that once flou- rishing city. Che mando il nome a quell' ingrato mare Ch' n guiderdone a lei tolse la vita: He wrote an imitation of it, under the title of the Fourberies de Scapin, which was performed with success, by his own company, in Paris.
The Emilia is a free imitation of the Epidicus of Plautus. But the earliest edition that I have seen is that now lying before me. At length the earth washed down by the rapid currents of the Po, filled its celebrated harbour, and forcing the water over the adjacent grounds, pro- duced the marshes whose mal' atia occasioned the desolation of the city. The topographical descriptions are not the least valuable parts of this neglected poem.
Whofe mis-adventur'd, piteous overthrows, he raises his tragic structure. Their history, says he, Scritta in duri marmi Ma men duri pero della lor fede Truo 1'autor, con queste note chiusa: A te, che troverai, dopo tanti anni, La scoltura di questo acerbo caso; Si commette, che tu debbi disporlo In guisa, che rappresentar si possa, Porgendo un vive esempio in quella etate D'un' amor fido a i giovani, ed a le donne.
Whether or no the story on which this tragedy is founded, exists, in any form, either in the romantic or genuine history of Adria, I cannot determine ; nor have I been able to learn, whether such a tale had floated down on the breath of oral tradition, from the early inhabitants of Adria, to the time of our author. Some credit, however, is due to the confidence with which Groto addresses an audience whom he could not deceive, it may be presumed, in regard to the faft. Yet it will ap- pear from an analysis of this tragedy, that its fable bears a close affinity to that of Shakspear's Romeo and Juliet ; and that if Groto be not indebted to La Guilietta of Luigi da Porto for his subject, he frequently borrows both thoughts and incidents from that interesting little tale, m] Dissentions m This novel was first printed at Venice, in octavo, in iyjy.
Becoming alnwtas rare as a manuscrij.
- Similar Books.
- Turismo a Sesto Calende.
- Conferenze tenute a Firenze nel by Various - Free Ebook.
The queen, attended by her court, ascends the battlements of an high tower, to view the battle. Hadriana takes advantage of the absence of her mother, to disclose the secret of her heart to her nurse. She acknowledges that Latinus, the son of Me- zentius, her father's enemy, had not only won her affeclions, but that she had given him frequent meetings, at night, in the garden of the palace, under the sanction of the mago, or priest, a character answering to the friar in Shakspear's play. In the mean time, the queen returns to de- plore with her daughter, the impending danger which threat- ens the kingdom.
The battle still rages, and a messenger is dispatched to acquaint the queen that her only son had just fallen in single combat with Latinus. This event determines it,' i Slgnari, Giacomi contf di Clanbrassil, J. Of this curious collection only twenty-five copies were imparted by the press.
Of the author of La Giulietta, the following account is given by Crescimbeni. Luigi da Porto, a Vicentine, was, in his youth, on account of his valour, made a leader in the Venetian army ; bat, fighting against the Germans in Friuli, was so wounded, that he remained for a time wholly disabled, and afterwards lame and weak duiring his life ; on which account, quitting the profession of arms, he betook himself to letters, and wrote in volgar poesia. He died in 1 It is to be hoped, that Mr. This offer is gladly accepted, and the young.
Orders are immediately issued to prepare for the wedding. Joy pervades every breast, but that of Hadriana, who laments a brother killed by her lover, and dreads at the same time, the loss of that lover. Unable to bear this accumulation of misfortunes, and incapable of de- vising means of extrication, she has recourse to the mago, who commiserates her situation, and promises her an opiate which she is to take the night previous to the intended wed- ding.
This opiate is to hold her senses steeped in sleep for sixteen hours, o Ecco la polve, ch' io vo darvi, tatita Vi fara morta star, ben sedici hore. Dressed in her bridal robes and crowned with a garland of flowers which she had culled herself, she retires alone to her chamber ; but perceiving forebodings which she vainly endea- vours to suppress, she calls her damsels around her and bids "II che intendendo la giovane dolorossissima sopra modo ne divenne ne sapendo che si fare la morte mills volte al giorno disidcrava: She then summons her nurse,.
T ' , and directs her to give her un vaso d'acqua fresca Per mitigar la sua fervida sete Pria, che al sonno vicin si desse in preda. The messenger who is sent in the morning to desire her attendance at the altar, finds her apparently dead. Da' panni era coperta infino a piedi, Le belle man s' havea composto al petto, Con le dita incrocciate, il volto, volto Al ciel tenea. The body, followed by a long procession, crosses the stage, attended by a chorus of priests chaunting a solemn dirge, which the mother and nurse of Hadriana oc- casionally interrupt with bursts of sorrow.
The body is then deposited in the royal sepulchre. Resolving not to survive her, he swallows the poison, then pressing her again to his breast, he perceives some signs of life. O Dio, che sento? Hadriana, ch 'e cotesto? A tender scene ensues. At length Latinus feels the operation of the poison, and acknowledges the rash deed, but urges Adriana to live for the sake of her family. He struggles and expires. The inconsolable Hadri- ana vows not to survive him. Just at that moment the mago enters, attended by a friend ; he endeavours, in vain, to dis- suade the princess from her purpose.
She gives some direc- " r Ivila sua bella Giulietta sopra ossaet stracci di molti morti, come morta vide giacerc, onde immantinente forte piagnendo cosi comincio a dire: And as Shakspeare has not availed himself of it, it has been presumed he could not read the story in the original Italian ; which, perhaps, he never saw. Johnson observes, " proves nothing against his knowledge of the original. He was to copy, not what he knew himself, but what was known to his audience.
From this analytical review it is evident, that Groto not only followed da Porto in the conduct of his fable, but that he has also borrowed from him several thoughts and expres- sions. And, perhaps, it will yet appear, that the English bard read, with profit, the drama under consideration. It is, I know, generally supposed, that Shakspeare was igno- rant of the Italian language, though his works seem to afford strong internal evidence of his intimate acquaintance with the language, as well as the customs and manners of modern Italy. I shall not, however, presume to oppose my judgment to that of a Farmer, a Steevens, or a Malone: Latinus, having passed the night previous to his departure, in amorous dalliance with Hadriana, in the garden of the palace, perceives, with sorrow, the approach of morning.
Malone's valuable edition of Tl't Plyt and Petms of Wm. S'io non erro, e presso il far del giorno. Udite il rossignuol, che con noidesto, Con noi geme fra i spini, e la rugiada Col pianto nostro bagna 1'herbe. Ecco incomincia a spuntar 1'alba fuori, Portando un' altro sol sopra la terra. Ahime, ch'io tremo tutta. Questa e quell' hora, ch 'ogni mia dolcezza Affatto stempra.
Ahime, quest' e quell' hora, Che m' insegna a saper, che cosa e afFanno. O del mio ben nemica, avara notte, Perche si ratio corri, fuggi, voli, A sommerger te stessa, e me nel mare? If I err not, the day approaches faft. Hear'ft thou the nightingale that wakes with us, And thro' these lone shades trills her plaintive notes In melancholy concert with our woes? The dew, fast falling with our tears, impearls The beauteous flow'rs that spread their mingled blooms. Behold the east, my love. Alas, the morn, Ris'n from the oozy caverns of the deep, With rosy steps advances.
In her train Observe the bright divinity of day Close following. Ah, an icy ehillness Thrills thro' my veins. Unwonted tremours run O'er all my frame convuls'd. This is the hour Long doom'd. O cruel enemy, invid'ous night! Why urge thus rapidly thy ebon car? Why haste, why fly to plunge thyfelf and me In ocean's deep abyss? The first follows da Porto ; the latter Brooke ; and Brooke the Italian novelist. Questa bevendo voi con 1' acqua cruda,. Dara principio a lavorar fra un poco, E vi addormentara si immota, e fissa, E d' ogni seaso rendera si priva: II calor naturale, il color vivo E lo fpirar vi torra si, si i polsJ, In cui e il teftimonio della vita Immobili staran senza dar colpo ; u Jul.
Wilt thou be gone? It is not yet near day; It was the nightingale, and not the lark, That pierc'd the fearful hollow of thine ear ; Nightly Ihe fings on yon pomegranate tree: BeKeve me, love, it was the nightingale. Look, love, what envious streaks Do lace the severing clouds in yonder east; Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day Stands tiptoe on the misty mountains' tops. I must be gone and live, or stay and die.
Romeo and Juliet, Act Hi, ft. Che alcun per dotto fisico, che sia, Non potra giudicarvi altro, che morta. When this, with water from the living spring, Diluted, you shall drink, its potency You straight will feel. A slumbrous trance will feize Your drowsy senses. Your corporeal pow'rs Will cease their agency. The genial warmth That now with ardour glows thro' all your frame. Will then be felt no more. The vivid dyes Now mantling o'er your crimson cheek, will yield To deadly pale.
Within thee, for awhile, The vital spark will seem to be extinguish'd. Nay, even the busy pulfe that certain proof Of this frail being then will ceafe to beat. To all who fhall behold thee, thou wilt seem Quite dead, v When f v Friar. Take thou this phial, being then in bed, And this distilled liquor drink thou off; When prefently through all thy veins shall run A cold and drowsy humour, which shall seize Each vital spirit ; for no pulse shall keep His nat'ral progress, but surceafe to beat ; No warmth, no breath, shall testify thou liv'st ; The roses in thy lips and cheeks shall fade To paly aohes ; thy eyes' windows fall, Like deaih when he shuts up the day of life; Each part, depriv'd of supple government, Shall stiff, and stark, and cold appear, like.
Tra tanto manderem fidato messo, Occultamente in fretta al vostro amante, Che poco ancor da noi lontan camina, Con lettere secrete, ad avvisarlo Di tutto '1 fatto. II qual senza dimora A dietro, 1' orme rivolgendo, tosto Sara qui giunto, et egli, 6 se sia tardo Alquanto io, vi trarro dell' area fuori, E travestita andrete fuor con esso. E cosi nella morte, e nel sepolcro, La vita troverete, e il maritaggio. Cosi 1' ira paterna fuggirete, Le odiate nozze, e con pieta commune Senza alcun biasmo, senza alcun periglio, Lieta cadrete al vostro amante in mano.
Near to the confines of your father's state, Latinus lingers ftill. To him, with haste And fecrecy, a letter shall be fent, Unfolding all our purpose. But mould aught And in the borrowed likeness of shrunk death Thou shall continue two and forty hours, And then awake, as from a pleasant sleep. Romeo and Juliet, Act ir Scene I. I will your waking carefully attend, And, from the silent mansions of the dead, With speed convey you to his longing arms. Thus life and love await you in the tomb; Thus shall you 'scape the hated nuptial bonds, And shun your father's ire.
In the tragedy of Groto we find the minister of Hatrio performing the same pious office. The friar's exhortation must be familiar to the English reader; that of Hatrio's minister begins thus: Non mi dorro d'haver perduto i figli? Non perde il suo colui, che 1' altrui rende. A la terra doveansi i corpi, 1' alme A Dio, tutto '1 composto a lanatura: Against them sbalt awake, Shall Romeo by my letters know our drift, And hither shall he come, and he and I Will watch thy waking, and that very night Shall Romeo bear thee hence to Mantua ; And this shall free thee from this present shame.
Abundant as the beauties of Groto's tragedy are, they are almost outnumbered by concetti. Even the prologue is not exempt from puerilities: Of sighs an JEtna, and of tears a sea. Of this illegitimate offspring of wit, the muse of an ingenious friend, in a sportive moment, made the version which I sub- join.
Se'l cor non ho, com'esser puo, ch' i viva? E se non vivo, comel'ardor sento? Se 1'ardor m'ange, come ardo contento? Se contento ardo, il pianto onde deriva? S'ardo, ond 'esce 1'humor, ch'agli occhi arriva? Se piango, come '1 foco non n' e spento? Senon moro, ache ogn "hor me ne lamento? Ese moro, che sempre meravviva? S'amor mi ftrugge, perche il segue tanto? Se da madonna ho duol, perche la lodo? Questi effetti d' amor, si strano raodo,. E si diverso stil tengon, che quanto Vi penso piu, tanto gli mtendo meno.
How can I live when of my heart depriv'd? And can the bofomof a dead man glow? Ah, why fo patient 'midft my pungent woe? And if I burn, whence are my tears deriv'd? Is sorrow's fount within my eyes reviv'd From fire? Can flame survive where sorrows flow? If still I live, why thus my joys forego? Has sorrow still my final date surviv'd? I burn, I freeze, and can I freeze and burn? If love torments me, why my plague pursue? If Lucy grieves me, why my fair applaud? These dire effects of love, this varied mode Perplex me so, that still the more I view My plagues, the more my ignorance I mourn..
It may be said of Groto, that he " could never forgive any conceit that came in his way, but swept,, like a drag-net, great and small. In what year Groto was born, I have not been able to learn ; but we are informed by Cres- cimbeni, that he died at Venice in , and was buried in the church of San Luca.
A few years after his decease, his body was removed to his native city of Adria, where he now sleeps with his fathers. A society of theatrical dilettanti, then residing in Vicenza, occasionally exhibited the favourite dramas of the day, upon a temporary stage erected in the Palazzo della ragione, or town-hall of that city. Desirous of a more com- modious place of exhibition, they applied to Palladio for a design of a small theatre, and he gave them one on the simple plan of the ancient Roman theatre, preferring the semi-elyp- tic to the semi-circular form.
This theatre stands upon an area of ninety two feet in depth, and eighty five feet in breadth. It is divided, like its model, into five parts, viz. Scena, Pul- pitum, Orchestra, Spectatorium, and Porticus. The chord of the semi-elyptic of the theatre which we are describing, is cut by three streets, z the middle one of which, accord- ing to the precept of Vitruvius, presents palaces, obelisks, and other public buildings in perspective ; and the other two, or- dinary houses.
And, the fa9ade of the scena is ornamented with statues and bassi relievi, executed by Alessandro Vitto- ria. Nay, the circumstance of the Ros- munda of Rucellai having been represented in a garden, is another proof in point ; to which we may add, that " Gu- y Georg. But the moment the Olympic Theatre arose, the difficulty vanished. It was an architectonic comment on the ancient comic poets.
Re- cued det CEu-vrti, tern. The description of De la Lande -vy. Nor have sylvan dramatic exhibitions yet fallen into total disuse. In the year , Paesiello's beautiful opera of Nina was exhibited, by order of the king of Naples, in a small wood near Caserta. And so late as the year , a sylvan theatre was formed in the fantastic gardens of the marquis Bevilacqua, in Ferrara. But this rural excursion is leading me away from my subject. In fact, observance of unity of place pre- cludes the necessity of change of scene, and this law was rarely violated by the early Italian tragic poets.
But the I From certain passages in the Aminta of Tasso, and 1'amoroso sdegno of Francesco Bracciolini, the immobility of scenery, at this period, may be inferred. Machiavelli, in the prologue to his Mandragola, promises the spectators great variety of scenes: Vedcte 1'apparato, Quale hor vi dimostra. Questa e Firenze vostra. Un" altra volta sara Roma, 6 Pisa; Cosa da smascellarsi della risa. But the theatrical machinists of these times being not more expert than those of ancient Rome, performed their scenic changes under the concealment of a curtain, which answered to the Roman siparium.
The former concealed the scene, the latter the stage. The Auloeum and its uses are mentioned by Horace. But, to return from this digression: The chorusses, which are defi- cient in this edition, were never supplied. This may be at- tributed to the rough treatment which the author received from a malignant critic immediately after the appearance of his tragedy. Speroni was too proud to reply, and his muse, indignant, fled ; so that the Canace has come down to us in its pristine state of imperfection.
Yet the dramatic fame of Speroni rests on this unfinished production, which is" giudi- cata," says Crescimbeni x di pregio eguale ad ogni altra di nos- tra lingua. Though the syllabical freaks of Speroni's muse might, prhaps, be e The stage, on which this comedy was represented, was erected in the largest court of the ducal palace, where the Chiesa Nuova now stands.
It was constructed of wood, and cost only the moderate sum of one thousand crowns. Diede mangiar a can! Spertni, alia quale jgno aggiunlt alcuni alt ft tut comptiitioxi, Ven. I refer to this edition for Speroni's apology for hit subject but the passages which I have given from the tragedy, are drawn from the first edition r fiat. But our pity is moved when we behold her ex- tended on a couch, taking a final leave of her child before she plunges the fatal sword into her breast.
Posta s'era a seder sovra el suo letto La Miserella vinta daldolore Delparto, e dal timore De la morte futura E tenea ne le braccia II figliuol pur mo nato Padre de la sua morte Basciandogli hor la faccia, et hor il petto. Avoid punctuation except as indicated below:. Project Gutenberg 58, free ebooks by Various. Lombroso -- Mesmer e il magnetismo, conferenza di A. Mosso -- Napoleone, conferenza di A. Barrili -- I francesi in Italia conferenza di V. Fiorini -- La Repubblica partenopea, conferenza di G. Pompilj -- La trasformazione sociale, conferenza di F.
Nitti -- Il regno d'Etruria, conferenza di E.