Systemtheorie - Methoden und Anwendungen für ein- und mehrdimensionale Systeme (German Edition)

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Heute wissen wir, dass das falsch war.

Meaning of "Bumbum" in the German dictionary

Dax verliert den Kopf Upon clearing the building, Russian peacekeepers recovered, among other documents, an American passport in the name of Michael Lee White of Texas," said Nogovitsyn. White aufgetaucht und behauptet, sein kleiner Bruder lebe in Austin, Texas und arbeite in Kazakhstan und China. Der Pass seines kleinen Bruders sei aber schon verloren gegangen. Ebenso wie seit einigen Tagen sein kleiner Bruder selbst. Das Flugzeug wurde damals von den USA als vermisst gemeldet.

Welche Personen haben eigentlich genau entschieden, wie dieses Interview gesendet wird, wer oder welche Personen haben hier den Zensor gespielt? Welche Person hat das entschieden? Lest einfach selbst und bildet euch eure meinung: Wir haben auch hier kein Ziel gehabt. Deshalb ist es nicht korrekt, so zu reden. Georgische Soldaten haben, als sie nach Zchinwali kamen, - so im vorbeigehen Granaten in die Keller und Bunker geworfen, wo Frauen und Kinder sich versteckt hatten. Wie kann man so etwas anders nennen, als Genozid?

Und jetzt zur Regierung in Georgien. It is an affirmation that the United States remains at war with al Qaeda, the Taliban and "associated organizations. More here , including on the Federal Government's role in these raids. That video includes an interview with a lawyer from the National Lawyer's Guild who was detained and put in handcufffs , explaining that the surrounded house is one where various journalists are staying.

Additionally, a photojournalist with Democracy Now was detained at that house as well. So, both journalists and lawyers -- in addition to protesters -- have been detained and arrested even though not a single violent or criminal act has occurred. Their site, with ongoing updates, is here. The DNC in Denver was the site of several quite ugly incidents where law enforcement acted on behalf of Democratic Party officials and the corporate elite that funded the Convention to keep the media and protesters from doing anything remotely off-script.

But the massive and plainly excessive preemptive police raids in Minnesota are of a different order altogether. Targeting people with automatic-weapons-carrying SWAT teams and mass raids in their homes, who are suspected of nothing more than planning dissident political protests at a political convention and who have engaged in no illegal activity whatsoever, is about as redolent of the worst tactics of a police state as can be imagined. Here is the first of the videos, from the house that had just been raided: So und jetzt guckt euch das mal an.

This watch is a relabeled Casio F91w , a watch with an interesting history. Ramzi tried to make a bomb, accidentally set his hotel room on fire, and fled. In his recovered laptop there were instructions for how to use a Casio F91w as a bomb's timing device. As a result, the watch was linked to terrorism. It's important to point out that none of the 27 had actually modified their watches to become detonator timing devices. They were just ordinary watches, same as the ones above.

In their Detainee Statements , every prisoner expresses surprised incredulity when the watch is mentioned. Some point out in exasperation that their guards are wearing similar watches. Sicher alles luuuuupenreine Demokraturen. And my foot's about four and a half by about 10," he said. Beste Gegendarstellung aller Zeiten: Die Leute machen alle im Fitness-Studio ihre Gelenke kaputt: Aber naja, was solls, hat ihnen auch nichts geholfen.

Die Aufseher wurden ignoriert - und sogar in die Irre geleitet. The latest hope to fight dementia is a basic dye that forms a blue solution when it is dissolved in water. They are generally not experts and, as they dig away at priceless architectural works, they often manage to destroy them, all in the name of money. The mummy is believed to have been an elite member of the Chancay culture, a civilization that thrived in the central coast of Peru from about to AD.

The territory of the Chancay was later home to the Incas. The entire Western world, led by the United States, has embraced a Georgian regime, which invaded South Ossetia totally demolishing its capital city of 50, residents, assassinated men, women and children and dozens of Russian peace keepers.

Finance officials from the U. Georgia's Integrity Bank is closed by state regulators. Staffed almost exclusively by Israeli nationals and Jewish immigrants living illegally as settlers in the Palestinian West Bank,. Britain has failed US detainees: Britain has failed in its duty to stop the US from committing "shameful acts" in the treatment of suspects detained during the war on terror, one of America's most respected intellectuals warns today.

John McCain needs to persuade swing voters that he's willing to take on the Republican establishment. He needs to persuade conservatives that he isn't squishy about social issues. And he needs to close the gender gap. When you think about it, the real surprise about Sarah Palin's selection a his running mate is that it's such a surprise.


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Palin is only candidate to suggest it should be discussed in schools. The McCain campaign was called out for lying about. Turns out, McCain never met or even spoke with Mother Teresa on that trip. Evo Morales, the Bolivian president, has set the date for a referendum on a new constitution that allows presidential re-election and aims to empower a the country's indigenous majority.

The Justice Department on Wednesday recommended a dramatic reduction in the prison sentence of imprisoned lobbyist Jack Abramoff,.

Translation of «Tamagotchi» into 25 languages

Why do we keep letting the politicians get away with lies? How on earth do they get away with it? Let's start with war between Hizbollah and Israel — past and future war, that is. Pakistan's presidential front runner has moved into a tightly guarded government compound over security fears, officials said yesterday as a militant campaign against the government led to more violence in the country's volatile north-west.

Russia will have to close its embassy in Tbilisi after Georgia decided to cut diplomatic ties with Moscow, Russia's RIA news agency quoted an unidentified Foreign Ministry source as saying on Friday. What the Russian papers say: Russia to spend almost half of its budget on new arms race: Russia may deploy three military bases in Abkhazia, South Ossetia.

In tones that seemed alternately angry and mischievous, Putin suggested the Bush administration may have tried to create a crisis that would influence American voters in the choice of a successor to President George W Bush. Russia suffered a significant setback here Thursday as members of a regional security group in which the Kremlin plays an important role offered little support for Moscow's military action in Georgia.

Russia is reportedly preparing to cut oil supplies to Poland and Germany in response to threatened EU sanctions over the Georgia conflict. That is why I am certain that the Bush ehr construction will be completed successfully," Beschetnov said. August that additionally, 3, more centrifuges are in the stage of installation.

The unidentified source said while international superpowers such as the United States are focusing their antinuclear efforts on diplomacy, Israel won't accept that Iran is capable of developing nuclear weaponry, IsraelNN. A nonprofit lobbying organization aimed at strengthening Israel's image in the media quietly ran ads during the Democratic National Convention in which Boulder, Colorado launches missile attacks on Denver, in an attempt to bolster support for Israeli action against Iran.

Tensions between US and Russia behind nuclear push, says expert: Faraj said the Russians and the Iranians may have reached a political accord during the summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization held in Tashkent in Uzbekistan on Thursday. Former Air Force secretary Thomas Reed, a former weapons lab scientist, paints a portrait of China as a reckless distributor of nuclear weapons know-how in a report released Thursday in PhysicsToday magazine. Germany's Defense Ministry says three civilians were killed when security forces opened fire after their vehicle failed to stop at a checkpoint in northern Afghanistan.

Prosecutors told the jury that Mr Nazario had ignored clear rules about how to treat prisoners and ordered the execution-style killing of four "unarmed, submissive, docile" detainees during a house search. Military officers testify that US soldiers murdered Iraqi detainee s: Testimony presented to a US Army hearing in Germany this week detailed how three US noncommissioned officers executed four bound and blindfolded Iraqi detainees in Baghdad in. The four men—whose names have been withheld by the US military—were allegedly murdered and their bodies dumped on the banks of a canal.

Meanwhile, in New Orleans, America's story of black urban poverty is still unfolding, largely beneath the radar of the global media. Schade nur, dass es auch in England nur die "Konservativen" als "Alternative" gibt. Pseudo-Auswahl zwischen Pest und Cholera. The chancellor admitted the government had "patently" failed to get its message across that it understood people''s concerns about rising living costs and growing job insecurity. Tja, so "denken" Politiker. Wenn ihr euch wundert, wieso die immer so im Wochenabstand umkippen: In Bagdad habe nahezu jede Familie Verwandte verloren.

Und er ist nicht der einzige Korrespondent. Und ihr dachtet, der Bush sei weggetreten! Die Situation erinnerte stark an. He said "We have always stressed that Kosovo has special characteristics. That it is sui generis and it cannot be used as a precedent for other conflict zones, areas or regions". The secret seems to be a combination of rising economic prosperity, democracy and social liberalisation. Weil die Amis uns allen Demokratie, Freiheit und Menschenrechte gebracht haben!

Den Punkt mit der Wirtschaft kann ich gerade nur bedingt nachvollziehen. Man denkt immer, die ganzen maroden Schrottreaktoren stehen im Osten, aber im Moment But under our current unconstitutional central banking monetary system, it borrows that money by issuing bonds, which are sold through the Federal Reserve into the financial markets. That is, it is borrowing money from the very financial markets it is attempting to bail out. As governor, Palin appointed to the position of Commissioner of Public Safety a guy who was reprimanded for sexual harassment in his previous job.

He grabbed a female employee - against her will - and hugged and kissed her. So please explain why this woman - who wants to strip women of their right to choose - is some kind of reason why women might vote for McCain? I refuse to legitimise corruption in my own party, however and I would never tell a fellow American to stay home on election day. Der Wetterbericht verhindert keinen Wirbelsturm, und die Erdbebenvorhersagen verhindern keinen Tsunami, solange das Meer auf einer Erde ruht, deren Platten sich stetig gegeneinander reiben.

Eindrucksvoll sind auch Experimente, bei denen sich zeigt, wie sehr sexuelle Erregung Kaufentscheidungen beeinflusst. Der Mensch neige in emotional aufgeladenem Zustand eben zu falschen Entscheidungen, bemerkt Ariely. Niemand, so seine beruhigende Botschaft, sei der Macht der Unlogik aber hilflos ausgeliefert. Sie studierte Journalismus und Politikwissenschaften. In dieser Position deckte sie mehrfach Interessenkonflikte von Mitgliedern des Gremiums auf. Zwischenfall mit Bundeswehr — 3 tote Zivilisten Besides being a puzzling detective story, the P-T extinction is also a cautionary tale for our time.

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The lessons of the P-T massacre are "directly applicable to the present," said John Isbell, a geoscientist at the University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. He said the world today is in danger of exceeding a CO2 "threshold" that could set off an environmental upheaval as great as the one million years ago. The Roman Catholic Church has for centuries commissioned statues of saints and other pious heroes. It's now wrestling with a more sensitive tribute -- a monument to a man who may be its most illustrious heretic. Da sind Leute im Amt, die nicht verstehen, dass das Demonstrationsrecht das ist, was uns zu einem freiheitlichen Rechtsstaat macht.

Aus Angst vor den Nazis schaffen wir der Reihe nach die Freiheiten ab, die uns von ihnen abheben. Total filings rose to , from , a year earlier. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. They need about a half a trillion dollars in borrowing authority, and they need a vehicle to own these banks while we triage them and sell them. Britain's secret propaganda war against al-Qaida: BBC and website forums targeted by Home Office unit. The US military secretly has sent more than foreign detainees captured in Iraq and Afghanistan to be interrogated in Saudi Arabia, Egypt and other countries over the past few years, The New York Times reported Thursday.

A casually deployed radar system: The radar deployment will have historical significance: Israel has always had reservations about such a possibility and preferred to "defend itself by itself" and retain maximum freedom of action. But it can't be both. And that's a choice Russia has to have," Fried said.

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Russia is breaking international law: Any plans to impose sanctions upon Russia over the deepening crisis in Georgia would be an example of the west's "sick imagination", Moscow has said. Tensions between Russia and the West were ratcheted even higher today after Moscow warned that the American naval build-up in the Black Sea could be seen as a 'declaration of war'. For the past six years, military relations between the United States and Afghanistan have been governed by a two-page "diplomatic note" giving U.

The United States is spending more money than ever on private security contractors in Iraq as thousands of troops return home amid steady declines in insurgent attacks, federal records show. One in six American soldiers in Afghanistan and one in eight in Iraq are taking daily doses of prescription antidepressants, sleeping pills or painkillers to help them cope with the stresses of combat, according to figures contained in a US Army mental health advisory team report seen by The Herald.

He became your friend. He threw fund raisers in your honor. He even made a sweet shopping-center investment deal for your wife, Cindy. Your father-in-law, Jim Hensley, was cut in on the deal, too. Nuclear-armed Pakistan is falling apart, Iran's nuclear program is unchecked and congressional legislation on cooperation with the Russians on controlling nuclear proliferation is now dead in the water.

Horrid news except for Sen. John McCain, who thrills to a repeat of the danger lines of the Cold War, and now stands a good chance of being our next president. The veterans' ultimate goal was to deliver a statement to presidential candidate Barack Obama, urging him to promote the immediate withdrawal of "all occupying forces" from Iraq, among other points. The World Bank has warned that world poverty is much greater than previously thought.

It has revised its previous estimate and now says that 1. Hornberger - If Iraq really is a sovereign and independent country, then why does it have to negotiate anything with the United States, including an exit date for U. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have nose dived and been downgraded toward a smaller future - and these are more important names for your future than Joe, Sam, Kathy, Mitt, Meg The debt this nation owes to the banks, to foreign creditors, and to each other can never be paid off.

When it came to the Constitution, the Democratic leadership showed us that aiding and abetting illegal spying on us was more important to them than protecting our civil liberties. Sie glaube nicht, dass es klug war, die US-Raketenabwehr in Polen und Tschechien vertraglich durchzusetzen und dort Abfangraketen auch in Richtung Russland zu installieren. Mitchell , Novacom Inc. Bei einem Verbrauch von Mittlerweile zeigen sich zunehmend negative Effekte dieser Politik: Seeing the warning signs, we persistently tried to persuade the Georgians to sign an agreement on the non-use of force with the Ossetians and Abkhazians.

On the night of August we found out why. They both spend some time in Germany in their early youth Ali in Potsdam and Raif Efendi in Berlin , learn the German language, and work as translators back home. Having returned from Germany in the wake of the reform, Ali took an active part in this process. During his stay in Potsdam to learn the German language on a government fel- lowship in , Ali had already begun to reflect on how translation can be a useful tool to grasp the centrality of language as a site of conflict between oppos- ing interests, particularly during periods of fast-paced transformation.

The effect of estrangement created by translation parallels and reinforces the physical displacement of the author, his move away from home in order to be able to look at it with a fresh set of eyes. Andrews draws attention when he confesses that the more he translates, the more confused he gets on what translation really means: Translation is then best described as a spectrum of activities which serves the general purpose of rendering a set of ideas or information from one to another system of intelligibility.

An Oddity of Language: In other words, this letter displays three important cultural- linguistic elements; Ottoman Turkish, the main means of communication; Ger- man, the main supplier of content i. First, he shows how language has a direct impact on the nature of the given message, or how when the language itself changes, the content changes, even when the same person talks about the same subject, inviting readers to reflect on how their own native tongue plays an active role in their perception of the world.

Sec- ond, he treats German proper nouns as if they were made of Turkish subparts, equating signifiers of one language with those of another unrelated one. This becomes manifest through a comparison of descriptions of the German ur- ban landscape in Seyahatname and Madonna: But there was nothing about it that would make a person swoon with awe. Following the church bells, all stores opened their doors and the intoxicat- ed inhabitants of this grand town - both men and women - went out half- naked, sporting peculiar outfits.

This humble servant soon joined the crowd and began to wander along the long string of shops, with the noble intention of acquainting himself with European manners and advancing his knowledge of the subject. What a scenery it was, akin to Judgment Day…And yet the girls walking around would make one think it were Par- adise instead The deliberate mismatch between his language-discourse and his acts there- fore, between the narrative style and content becomes even stronger when the Ali walks into the church the next day.

Unable to find the girls and guessing that he has been stood up, Ali nevertheless remains in the church and fully participates in the religious ceremony, crossing himself, kneeling down and praying to Jesus, and singing along with the crowd. It precludes any other way of accounting for the events other than that which the form allows, and determines the way the author grasps the world around him. The rules of the narrative were set at the very beginning, when Ali describes his journey through the Balkans in a mocking, yet nostalgic tribute to the newly deceased em- pire, the antagonist par excellence of the republic: Of course, here, Ali aims for the opposite effect, and uses the texts to show how he perceives and reflects events differently, merely because he operates in a different historical register of the same language.

Rooted in German Romanticism, hermeneutics and existential phenomenolo- gy, translation theorists and practitioners thought of language as constitutive of reality and translation as reconstituting the reality of the original text in the target language. As a result, translators engaged in meta-translative acts, such as translation through literalisms, aiming to render translated text foreign to its target language, in order to empha- size both the act itself and the qualities of the original language Venuti In fact, the second way in which Ali creates linguistic estrangement in Seyahatname has to do with a play on literalism, defining a German proper noun in Ottoman Turkish.

This is certainly more marked in the difference between the dia- chronic versions of the same language. Native speakers of the language expectedly joined in this process of re- creation, albeit in unofficial terms, sometimes to take the initiative to judge the effectiveness of the new words, and other times to mock some of the official deci- sions. In The Turkish Language Reform: A Catastrophic Success, Geoffrey Lewis com- ments on public engagement during reformative moments and points out how it has, at times, been a disruptive force against the nation-building project, since peo- ple cared more about the utility of words than their historicity: The disclaimer suggests that those witty public suggestions were taken to be official by some, pointing to the experimental nature of the process.

As many cultural historians of the early republic point out, the discourse on the lin- guistic reform emphasized an essential, yet dormant national core that needed to be rediscovered as it was to be an indispensable element of the emergent nation- state. Like the neologisms that did not stick, his linguistic choices sound comical because they do not reflect the conventions of the time; yet they also create the effect of alienation that jolts the reader into the realization of the historicity of the moment in which they live.

Debates on Humanism and the Birth of Comparative Literature Why should anyone care about a personal letter, one might ask, especially consid- ering that it was not in any way intended for publication to begin with? We are joining the world anew. Therein stood the gist of the linguistic reforms that highly emphasized the act of translation.

It follows from this deliberate emphasis placed on translation, that translators were the very agents shaping the Turkish language anew. This, of course, is not an exclusively modern phenomenon. In an attempt to create a Kulturspra- che that would reflect the expressional habits of the majority of its speakers and that would thus be an essential part of this self-rediscovery, the pre-republican literary language in all its temporal and stylistic variations was cast as a lingua non grata, an artificial, imitative and inauthentic entity that had been hiding a dormant essence.

Auerbach in Turkey, prominent Jewish scholars escaping the Nazi regime, including Erich Auerbach and Leo Spitzer, took refuge in Turkey, forming sizable communities in its major urban centers. The act of translation as interlingual movement is thus also an agent that works even, at times, against the nation and the national language. Despite the central role of translation as a cognitive agent that builds commu- nities while, at the same time, constituting the amount of intercommunal porosity that they allow, some of the best translations are often deemed to be among the most invisible.

Nothing could be further from the truth; processes of translation thus need to be exposed, and Ali suggests this precisely that in both Seyahatname and Madonna. In that respect, one should see these as texts of meta-translation, illuminating how languages are, despite their kinship, historically embedded in their particularities, and how this historicity can only be discovered in comparing them, both synchronically, as in the case of Turkish and German, and diachronically, as in the case of pre-republican and republican Turkish.

This realization, in turn, al- lows one to understand the real impact of the sudden changes inflicted onto lan- guages by political authorities, without necessarily isolating these events as the only times when the linguistic and the political converge. Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London. Auerbach, Erich []: Politics and Poetics of Translation in Turkey, , Amsterdam. A History of Translation, New York. Rather than provide descriptive translations, we have chosen to main- tain these original place names precisely because they are not immediately recog- nizable to an English-speaking reader.

As such, they resonate as a site of linguistic difference within the modern language of the English translation. Ali also employs antiquated place names to refer to Germany throughout his letter. Frengistan Frangistan , for example, was used in the Ottoman Empire as late as the 17th century to refer to western or Latin Europe. This fictionalized name pokes fun at the essential- ization of contemporary cultural identities through recourse to medieval historical predecessors.

At the same time, our translation sacrifices the ironic historicity of the word Cermen. In doing so, we engage in a form of phonetic translation that Ali him- self later employs in his letter. All together, by means of cubism, it means: To a certain extent, our English rendition of this passage replicates the processes of translation at work in the original. The medium of Eng- lish nevertheless calls attention to the interlingual translation of Potsdam into a collection of Ottoman words.

As a European form of entertainment, ice skating had become a sign of modernity and progress in turn-of-the-century Istanbul, in that it provided a new form of public social interaction between men and women. This form of English-English wordplay neverthe- less loses the additional reference to patinaj as a French loan word, which under- scores the importation of ice skating to the late Ottoman Empire from Western Europe.

That is to say, in the beginning of year Hijri and Gregorian, this flawed writer of foolish lines, Sabahaddin Ali, was busy educating young minds in Yozgad, the city of cities. With the sudden arrival of the season of wandering also called vacation, he took on his back his saddle-bag and embarked on the road toward Asitane. When that person asked: This is not reasonable. You are an intelligent person. There are good deeds this state and nation desires you to do. Never consider such frivolity.

But if going to the land of infidels is your ultimate desire, it is our duty to help you realize it with ease. Yet, unlike other friends, he kept his promise; within a month he announced my participation in an examination available in Der-i Aliyye2. In a letter most kind he urged me to make every effort to avoid embarrassment in this regard, even though, he added, the result of the examination would surely be to my ad- vantage.

As for me, as already known by my friends and acquaintances, I took the examination and following a positive outcome, began to wait and hope for some money to compensate for travel expenses. Although the wait was far too long, a generous amount—three hundred republican Liras to be exact—poured into my pocket like rain of mercy.

No need to elaborate, as my friends know all of this already; in short, I finished all preparations, and we gathered in Sirkevi, the grand train station, in order to set out for the land of decadent infidels. Meanwhile, I prom- ised to send them detailed news from Frangistan. How could you so quickly throw friends in a corner of oblivi- on? What happened to the news from here? What has become of the long letters you were going to send? Despite my excessive ineptitude, which would certainly lead to an outcome as inscrutable as the affairs of the Ministry of Education, I was convinced that no apology would be necessary for sending it to friends who have surely perceived my various mistakes with a forgiving gaze thus far.

And so that the reading is not overly taxing, I have made every effort to avail myself of simple language. With a final request for the reader to forgive the hastily composed nature of this work, which even lacks connections between sentences, let us embark on the writing of the travelogue. May Allah grant it benevolent success. The Pain of Departure and Incidents of the Road Even though I am not among the lucky ones blessed with a love of the homeland, as we departed the Sirkevi station waving our handkerchiefs and wiping our eyes, tears of emotion rolled down my trifling eyes for this country that I would not be able to see for six, seven years, maybe even for eternity.

I decided to tolerate my fate in silence, re- calling that it is useless to divert tears of emotion. I desired to lay down, thinking that sleep would have a calming effect, but some kind travel companions protested as there would not be enough space left for them. Once we transferred to Bulgarian locomotives at the Bulgarian stations, however, a stove-like invention that was new to us, but old to these lands was added to our cars; these so-called radiators brought us a bit of warmth. The land of the Bulgarians was no different than ours; one could tell that it had once belonged to us, looking at the signs of destruction that were still apparent.

As the train moved forward, grand places like Plovdiv that used to be filled with Muslims made us reminisce about the old Ottoman state with longing. We arrived in the city of Sofia at nightfall, and upon touring the city we were all agape with wonder. We were doubly astonished by the monuments built to bolster the only nascent national pride of a three-and-a-half-day-old State of Bulgaria. The smallest of these monuments was so much more graceful and majestic than even the most pleasurable of monuments in our homeland.

In the morning of the following day we saw the grandiose city of Belgrade. But during the previous night a small incident occurred that is appropriate to tell here: Suddenly a thought occurred to my humble mind and I began to take all the pieces of luggage from the porte-bagage above us and place them on the floor. I then went up to that place and managed to get some tranquil sleep. After a good deal of time, when I opened my eyes and righted myself, I saw that a Serbian train official was reprimanding me to get down. Even though I snapped at him and went back to sleep, he kept on mum- bling in a language I did not understand.

But he just shoved it in his pocket and walked away. As the heart of this humble servant was overcome with apprehension, I thought: Indeed, the fellow held onto my ticket until the following morning. As we passed the border from Serbia to Hungary, he gave it to the Hungarian officers and they returned it to me with the utmost kindness. At the border to Hungary, upon fully comprehending that we were in Europe, we began to admire the signs of civilization. Around noon, we entered the Great Hungarian Plain. Though my pen cannot do justice to the description, let it suffice to say that our train pursued the straightest of routes, traveling for six hours on end without encountering the smallest rise or fall in elevation, or taking the slight- est of swerves to the right or the left.

Without exaggerating in the slightest, I can say that we were all astonished by the flatness of this landscape. Toward the end, as we began to pray and exclaim: Upon arriving in Pest, we toured the city as usual. This was also a fantastic place with particularly magnificent bridges. Upon realizing that this city was once under our administration, one cannot help but feel the pang of a memory deep inside. Early the following morning we passed through Prague, the city of cities; in the afternoon we arrived in Dresden, the first train station after the German border.

Here we had left the gothic style of architecture behind; red-walled buildings with slated roofs came into view, followed by uniform rows of pine and beech trees, all resembling one another And in the evening we arrived in the city of light they call Berlin. Because I have already recounted a bit about the situation in Berlin in my pre- vious letters, please allow me to give an abbreviated account here: And its orderly buildings must certainly also be mentioned—above all the department store called Wertheim.

May Allah protect it! The Comprehensive Germanistan Travelogue After staying here for 15 days I had spent everything at my disposal. As I was left empty handed, the embassy sent me to Potsdam out of pity. Pick up the German language like a parrot! May Allah grant me success! And yet the intensity of the cold air fails to reassure us that we are safe from solidifying into blocks of ice one day, just like these statues.

The lakes and rivers surrounding this town are all frozen, and on their frozen surface—Allah forbid! The temperature hovered between fifteen and seventeen degrees below zero, though at times it reached a high of five or six degrees below zero out of undue generosity on its part. In this kind of weather, we abandon ourselves to the reality of the cold road to school, reaching an extreme degree of self-renunciation for the sake of acquiring knowledge. The distance between the city of Berlin and the town of Potsdam is, however, rather long, and as I was walk- ing through the market in Potsdam, headed with the utmost decorum towards my house, I began to hear all the bells from the churches and monasteries of the infi- dels breaking into a clamor.

And what a clamor! No words could describe it. Following the church bells, all stores opened their doors and the intoxicated inhabitants of this grand town—both men and women—went out half-naked, sporting peculiar out- fits. This humble servant soon joined the crowd and began to wander along the long string of shops, with the noble intention of acquainting himself with Euro- pean manners and advancing his knowledge of the subject.

What a scenery it was, akin to Judgment Day And yet the girls walking around would make one think it were Paradise instead Fireworks, sparklers, and firecrackers of all sorts painted spirals on the snowy skies, then fell onto the snow-covered ground where they continued to burn for a good while, reflecting their red and green glows onto the people around, and making the space seem like a fantasy world.

Even those girls of the town whose stature, behavior, fancy outfits, and pretty faces suggested they were from well-to-do families walked around drunk, bewil- dered, and full of laughter, exposing their naked arms to slowly falling snowflakes. And if one of them yelled too much, the police officers on duty would tell her to calm down, and would turn their backs if they complained about the boys. This spectacle offended my Islamic zeal; I wanted to help make the hearts of these girls as pure and enlightened as their beautiful faces, filling them with Islamic wisdom and moral values. When I turned to look, I saw a houri with ruby-red lips and hair the color of amber, smiling with eyes as bright as the radi- ance of this light-filled night.

She welcomed my attentive gaze, and, smiling anew, extended her delicate hand to wish me a blessed new year. She had a girlfriend with her. We exchanged a fraternal handshake and continued walking together. The Comprehensive Germanistan Travelogue Convinced that silence would not be appropriate, I began to talk. Our conver- sation was worth listening to; I knew no more than a few sentences that I had memorized, as for her, she did not speak any language other than German, which she now spoke in a funny way because she was intoxicated… In any case, we made do with body language, some words from French and so on.

She then joined her girlfriend and we began to walk and talk. She uttered long sentences, but failing to grasp her words, I said: Let brother Orhan know it is not a mistake. And then he kissed me on the cheeks. But this was nothing—when the pure girls whom I had with me for the purpose of enlightening and putting on the right path also received hugs and noisy kisses, I involuntarily began to recite the Islamic confession of faith. After walking around for a while longer, I judged the time of enlightenment to have come and decided to talk about the harms of alco- hol consumption.

We just drank a little bit. In the end, this ravishing blond who had first talked to me proceeded: How can you tell we are drunk? I knew it because of the smell coming from your lovely mouth. I failed to sense anything, and asked her to move towards me a little more. However, the damned libertine, in her cunning ways, just came too close and made this humble servant commit a sin as he never had before. As if this were not enough, she kissed my cheeks, now red with shame, and broke out in immodest laughter. She then sidled up to me and whispered into my ear: Upon parting, I asked them when we were to meet again, out of my still unfulfilled duty of enlight- ening them.

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They promised they would be in the grand Catholic Church in the outskirts of the city tomorrow. I went back to my house and immersed myself in sweet sleep In the evening of the next day, I turned to go to that blasphemous place of worship, but despite waiting under the snow, in fifteen degrees below zero, I never encountered them. Thinking they might be inside the church, I decided to enter. Not aware of Christian customs, I followed the example of an elderly person pass- ing in front of me.

I put my hand in the holy water and made the sign of the cross along with him. I went down on my knees and prayed to Jesus. I felt very pleased thinking that I was doing all this to lead these blasphemers into the path of true religion. Yet, despite being tortured with all kinds of prayers and quietly participat- ing in the songs of Christianity, somehow I never caught a glance of those women. When it was time to leave I quickly went to the door and scrutinized each person as they left, but I still could not find them.

Eternal Allah, what happiness it would bring if you were to forget a portion of my sins for this gaza! As no other event worthy of recording has since caught my eye in the town of Potsdam, this travelogue thus comes to an end. Allah has spoken the truth. Only Pertev Naili Mullah shall decide who can read this worthless letter. And because the backs of the pages have been left blank, the prohibition of drawing pictures there is also entrusted upon him. By the time this humble servant realized that he had wasted paper, it was too late. It has just come to my attention that this travelogue ends on page thirteen.

But since our Effendis are not Christians, they would not think it inauspicious. Unlike jihad, gaza is still part of non-religious contemporary Turkish-language usage. Bu adam bizim bileti vermezse ne eylerim? The Enlightenment serves as a guiding idea in his discussions on contemporary German identity in a nation of immigrants. His vision of an enlightened German identity is an aesthetic one, defined by language, poetry, and music.

Finding a language, even a broken German language that helps citizens come to terms with a traumatic national past, is an essential step toward creating an open, welcoming society. He lived first in Munich and has lived in Berlin since ; he has frequently acted as a mediator between Turkish and German culture. He has also written feuilleton articles for German newspapers and journals across the entire political spectrum, including taz, Tagesspiegel, Die Welt, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Tagesspie- gel, and Die Zeit.

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Adelson , and Das Land hinter den Buchstaben: Ein Findelbuch and In deinen Worten: In academic literature, Deutschsein has been discussed primarily by two critics: Enlightenment thought becomes a model for a more open and inclusive German society that integrates immigrant citizens, especially from Muslim countries. Especially in regard to the German Enlightenment and Islam, there is a long and intensive history of contact.

Oriental Studies as an academic sub- ject is above all a German creation. It not only led to an exotizing of a world that was perceived as foreign, but also it actually created a close vi- cinity. Die Orientalistik als akademisches Fach ist vor allem eine deutsche Kreation. Later, Thomas Mann revised his views and came to es- pouse a more tolerant, democratic, and universal notion of civilization. Unlike the more na- tionalist concept of culture, as Mann had defined it earlier, the idea of civilization incorporates pluralism, diversity, and cosmopolitanism.

He perceives that, historically, the Enlightenment had a different effect on French or American society than on the German one: Modernity divided Germany deeply. The dark soul on the one hand, the technological achievements on the other. The Enlightenment did not re- sult in an upheaval of power relations, as in France or the United States, but in a splitting of the mind. However, he evaluates the present situation differently: A glance at the other that is not broken through the prism of self-criticism will always be distorted.

The incompatibility of Islam and modernity, of democracy and Muslim culture, is a dictum of both Islamic fundamental- ists as well as Western opponents of Islam, who invoke the Christian roots of their culture and thereby conceal the history of the Enlightenment. The catastrophes of the twentieth century have taught us that humans are not exclusively rational beings: The Dialectic of Enlightenment, first published in and again in a revised version in , shaped twentieth-century discussions on the Enlightenment, but it seems to be no longer present in public discourses.

Some conservative pundits in the integration debate assert the sup- posed superiority of Western European civilization because it underwent the his- torical period of the Enlightenment, and believe that Muslims who have not inter- nalized such an Enlightenment period cannot participate in a modern, enlightened Western European society D These same critics, however, ignore the argu- ments of the Frankfurt School that Enlightenment is also a dialectical process and could not stop fascism and anti-Semitism in Europe, for example. The same ra- tionalist world view could lead first to the creation of democracy and moderniza- tion, and later also to the brutal destruction of war and genocide in the twentieth century: The Dialectic of the Enlightenment [ At the same time, Kemalism is characterized by its own dialectic, and this rational process of Turkish modernization also coincided with nationalism and violence in Turkey: Modernization also regaled Turkey with a nationalism that led to the dis- persal and murder of hundreds of thousands of human beings.

He is clearly looking at Kemalism as a form of Enlightenment and emphasizes the great cultural achievements of Turkish modernity: Ra- tionality cannot be cold and merely functional; it needs to acknowledge the histo- ries and stories of each country. I am part of this tradition of a Turkish Islam that is naturally enlightened and European.

The legacy of my provenance, however, also challenges those Westerners who wish to imprison their spiritual heritage in a cultural geo- graphic map with clearly drawn borders. He rejects the exclusionary argument that the Enlightenment is a uniquely European phenomenon. In arguing instead in favor of an enlightened Islam, he criticizes both the fundamentalist Westerners who consider Europe and Islam incompatible, as well as some Turkish fundamentalists who strictly adhere to conservative traditions that have not been filtered through the Enlightenment.

This emphasis on multilingualism opens the path for a pluralistic, tolerant, and open-minded worldview. Language and poetry also form the subjects of several individual chapter titles: Wann bietet eine Fremdsprache Ge- borgenheit? This new language of- fered a sensual experience for the young author, for whom words have a taste: They sound, they taste. Sie klingen, sie schmecken. As language mediates between thinking and feeling, it can cause joy and pleasure bordering on the erotic: Language flows, touches, and creates desire.

None of this desire is percep- tible in the discussions on integration and linguistic deficits in Germany. The cool atmosphere of a laboratory prevails.

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Language, a primary means of communication, can also become a place to which immigrants can retreat and isolate themselves. The Distinctive Language of Germans, D , begins with a geographic reference to a part of West Berlin, the short space be- tween Rathenauplatz and Adenauerplatz.

The physical walk from Rathenauplatz, commemorating the murder of the German-Jewish foreign minister in , to Adenauerplatz, commemorating the first German chancellor after World War II and the rebuilding of German democracy, also encompasses a temporal space, the time of the downfall of the Weimar Republic, of National Socialism, and the de- struction of war. In which language is such a confession formulated? In welcher Sprache wird ein solches Bekenntnis formuliert?

It contains the following inscription: Mutual respect and a commitment to nonviolence could have protected his life. As a reaction against the linguistic abuses of the Nazis, postwar German poetic language became con- sciously unemotional. Cultural encounters are always fertile when they are childhood encounters.

No wonder that the language of fairy tales imposes itself here. In addition to Muslim writers, he cites Jewish au- thors: This world literature is cosmopolitan, and its influence reaches far beyond the original national borders of its creation. However self-critical it needs to be, a love of self is essential for loving and understanding the other.

Music Besides language and literature, music plays a large role in Deutschsein. He observes that many contemporaries perceive mixed societies as helplessly and with as much irritation as they would regard an atonal composition. Dissonance and atonality may be perceived similarly, but have a differ- ent meaning in music. While dissonance primarily refers to a tension, clash, and lack of harmony among musical notes, atonality, the structure of twentieth century and contemporary music that lacks a key or a tonal center, is indeed a beautiful metaphor for multiculturalism in society.

In contrast, tonality, the classical system of European music that centers around a key and a hierarchy of musical relations, could symbolize Leitkultur. A related musical metaphor is polyphony. Such intermediate tones, however, should be defining features of an immigration society. Music and literature are innately intertwined: Each word is not only composed of letters. It also always has a melody. Maybe the holy scriptures are recognizable by a special music.

The Koran definitely is. Still today, the linguistic music of this text is profoundly mov- ing, the rhythm unmistakable. Es hat immer auch eine Melodie. Vielleicht sind die heiligen Schriften durch eine besondere Musik erkennbar. Der Koran ist es auf jeden Fall. Noch heute ist die Sprachmusik dieses Textes ergreifend, der Rhythmus unverkennbar. This is a reference to German Romanticism, which saw poetry as the closest kin to the original art form of music. Wagnerian music definitely forms an important part of the German tradition.

But Wagner himself is also a controversial figure because of his antisemitic writings, for example; and younger contemporary Germans may choose other musical role models as well. D 56, 70 could also be traced back to Roman- ticism, as could his emphasis on myth and fairy tales, on emotionality and an inter- nalized soul.

In Deutschsein, he primarily refers to Anatolian mysticism, which he also describes as musical: Anatolian mysticism, this special form of a musically and socially inspired faith, which has its roots in both Koranic doctrines as well as shamanistic nature contemplations, formed the foundation for a modern, cosmopolitan, and receptive Islam. But he may indirectly also imply an imagined kinship of souls between Germans and Turks, possibly the kindred spirits of Ger- man Romanticism and Turkish or Islamic mysticism.

His vision of a German identity is highly aestheticized, poetic, and musical. In his language and his world view, mysticism and modernity are compatible. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Edinburgh German Yearbook 7, Deutschland und seine Muslime, Munich. Das Land hinter den Buchstaben: Deutschland und der Islam im Umbruch, Munich. Atlas of a Tropical Germany: Essays on Politics and Culture, translated and edited by Leslie A. Atlas des tropischen Deutschland: Poesie der Dritten Sprache: Als Untersu- chungsschwerpunkte werden u. Das bedeutet nicht, dass transkulturelles Handeln per se existiert und transkulturelles Lernen obsolet wird — im Gegenteil: Es ist und bleibt eine Suche nach auch sprachlichen Unterschieden und Gemeinsamkeiten transkultureller Art vgl.

Kindern und Jugendlichen kann transkulturelles Erkennen und Handeln nicht immer intuitiv gelingen. Es soll jedoch auch keine Abgrenzung von anderen Kulturen stattfinden. Daraus lassen sich dann transkulturelle Lernprozesse entwickeln. Sollen wir Freunde werden? Markus besucht eine neue Schule und wird seinen Klassenkameraden vorgestellt.

Yusuf, der alleine sitzt, bietet Markus einen freien Platz neben sich an, den er gerne annimmt. Darauf- hin macht Yusuf Markus auf dessen helle Haut und blonden Haare aufmerksam: Jeder darf so sein, wie er ist. Ist es aber nicht viel wichtiger, dass Menschen einander ken- nen lernen, ihre gegenseitigen Vorurteile abschaffen und den Willen ha- ben, Freunde zu werden?

Die von Erol im Text angesprochenen Vorurteile sind in diesem Bilderbuch vor allem durch stereotypisierte Darstellungen gekennzeichnet: Ich lasse mich nicht verarschen. Fatmas Lehrerin spricht sie auf ihre traurige und nachdenkliche Stimmung an. Es beginnt eine herzliche Freund- schaft zwischen Fatma und Martha, die auch von Vorurteilen in Alltagssituationen und Einstellungsunterschieden von Familienmitgliedern begleitet wird, wie im folgenden Abschnitt deutlich wird.

Grotesk auf Grund ihrer Bedeutungslosigkeit wirkt vor allem eine Kreatur, der Fatma auf dem Schulweg begegnet und sagt: Was sich die Autorin hierbei dachte, bleibt im Verborgenen. Das Cover ist identisch mit dem in diesem Beitrag vorgestellten Bilderbuch. Auf unlogische Weise wird hier das intradiegeti- sche vgl. Auch hier wird wiederholt mit stereotypisierten Bildern gespielt und auf die dunkle Haarfarbe Fatmas fokussiert, wohingegen Martha und ihre Mutter in blon- der Haarfarbe dargestellt werden. Fatma will sich ihrer Freundschaft noch einmal gewiss werden und fragt: Im Literaturunterricht kann die Auseinandersetzung mit den transkulturel- len Haltungen der Figuren Fatma und Martha die negativen bikulturellen Haltun- gen der Erwachsenen obsolet werden lassen.

The River with out Bridge Hashi no nai kawa explores with outspoken frankness a subject matter nonetheless taboo in Japan: Racially no varied from different eastern, over the centuries burakumin were cruelly ostracized for his or her organization with occupations thought of defiling. Die Kinder, die hier in der Gefangenschaft geboren werden, werden zur Adoption freigegeben, verschwinden spurlos.

His weapon of selection?


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