Systemtheorie - Methoden und Anwendungen für ein- und mehrdimensionale Systeme (German Edition)

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This is what Lavoisier later called oxygen. However, Galenos also believed that life was sustained by food, which turned into blood in the liver, which nourished the heart, lungs, the brain, and other organs.

Waste materials were also thought to be removed by the blood. Thus, the blood circulation and metabolism are significant elements of his philosophical theory and he was a pioneer in suggesting a relationship between food, blood, and air [ 3 , 4 ]. The contribution of other Nations and scientists in the field of circulation, blood components, coagulation, and blood transfusion was very significant in the next centuries as well.

The Syrian Ibn Nafis AD first described the pulmonary circulation [ 22 , 31 ], the Iranian Rhazes AD made an accurate description of the heart valves [ 28 , 32 ], the British William Harvey showed that the blood circulated within a closed system and described the mechanisms of both systemic and pulmonary circulation in humans [ 28 ], and the Italian Marcello Malpighi made the first description of capillary circulation [ 28 ].

Raynaud's | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)

The first accurate descriptions of red blood cells were made by Dutch Jan Swammerdam and Antony van Leeuwenhoek The German Ernest Christian Neuman demonstrated that erythropoiesis and leukopoiesis formulate in the bone marrow and described the presence of nucleated red blood cells in bone marrow and proposed, in opposition to P. Ehrlich, in view of his one-stem-cell-theory for all blood cell lines even in extrauterine life. In this period, nobody noticed this idea beside Pappenheim , which became such an importat fact today. On the basis of his observation, Ernst Neumann was the first to postulate the bone marrow as blood forming organ with a common stem cell for all hematopoietic cells [ 33 ].

The British William Osler made the first description of platelets, formation of blood clots, and hints of possible synthesis in bone marrow. In he produced evidence for the concept of a cell membrane in red blood cells , however, this last work was largely ignored [ 34 ]. The German Paul Ehrlich identified neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils on the basis of staining of their granules.


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The first fully-documented blood transfusion to a human was administered by the French Jean-Baptiste Denis when he transfused the blood of a sheep into a year-old boy and the first human to human transfusion by British James Blundell The Austrian Karl Landsteiner documented the first three human blood groups A, B, and O and the American Reuben Ottenberg performed the first blood transfusion using blood typing and cross-matching [ 21 — 23 , 28 , 31 , 32 ]. In the last century, the progresses are very impressive concerning the clinical as well as the experimental fields of hematology.

Coulter developed the electronic instrument for measuring the blood cell parameters of all blood cells. In the Mids the Canadians James Till and Ernest McCulloch , the Australians Ray Bradley and Don Metcalf , and the English Mike Dexter and coworkers developed the cultures of hematopoietic progenitor cells and the Canadians Bill Robinson and Beverely Pike and coworkers s made progresses for the recognition and use of colony stimulating factors in the stem cell research.


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The bone marrow transplantation technique was significantly assisted after HLA discovery by J. The research results of the last year have been ameliorated the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of all hematological disorders benign and malignant [ 35 — 41 ]. Blood plays a significant role in Greek mythology, too, although the Greek Gods did not normally like blood sacrifices, which differentiates them from other ancient cultures. In mythology, the blood seems to have been something related to the psyche and the spirit, as one can easily conclude from primeval beliefs among savages and semisavages, who sprinkled the entrances to their caves or huts with it.

This action is due to the belief that demons not only feed on blood but have an insatiable thirst for it and are attracted by its smell hence their satisfaction by the blood sprinkled at entrances [ 42 — 44 ].

Gut bug enzyme turns blood into type-O

This belief was handed down to historical times and determined the role of blood in blood sacrifices. These views, however, happen to be shared by last century poetry. Thus, by bringing back to life, blood reactivates memory, being its prerequisite. One finds it in later texts as well.

He also relates the humors to the seasons of the year [ 3 , 4 , 25 , 26 ]. This treatise is also the first attempt to categorize human character. Later on, in mythological texts which, having originated in Greece and spread eastwards with Alexander, were brought back to their birthplace by the Arabs and the Byzantines, one sees the same views about blood. The latter views bear such a striking resemblance to the former that the two cannot possibly be unrelated, thus opening the way to both medical and comparative literature historical research.

It is enjoyable to read about a Persian Zoroastrian doctor Perzhoe Borzhoa in Persian who was sent to India in the 6th century AD to learn the secrets of their philosophers and bring them to his king, Chosroes I, in order for the king to become wiser in his governance.

Also during this internal discourse, he kept saying: Even today the boundaries between the physician and the philosopher of medicine remain blurred. The authors express their gratitude to the Greek literature master Mrs. Cherry Zervas for their virtual help for this work. Indexed in Web of Science. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract All ancient nations hinged their beliefs about hema blood on their religious dogmas as related to mythology or the origins of religion.

Our faces have a particularly high capacity of blood supply, which is why we go particularly red there. Women are particularly prone to red face because they tend to sweat less and shunt more blood to the skin, whereas men rely more on sweat to keep cool. Of course, some women — and men — go brighter red than others, which Professor Newton says comes down to variation in individuals' cooling systems, as well as skin tone.

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Weights sessions tend to lead to short bursts of red-face because blood pressure increases and sends blood to the face temporarily. But when the effort stops, your face returns to normal. It's sustained aerobic exercise, such as jogging, group fitness classes or high intensity sessions, that will give you the long-lasting red face.

The one time you do need to worry about a red face is if you are too hot and are at risk of hyperthermia, which is an extreme elevated body temperature that can be deadly. To avoid this, Professor Newton says it's important to stay hydrated in the heat and seek medical assistance if you have a headache, dizziness, dry, clammy skin or have stopped sweating.